文章摘要
李淑俊,王小明.美国全球供应链调整的国家安全逻辑及实现路径[J].国际安全研究,2022,(1):100-129
美国全球供应链调整的国家安全逻辑及实现路径
The Theoretical Logics and Implementation Paths of the U.S. Adjustment of Its Global Supply Chain
  修订日期:2021-11-08
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2022.01.005
中文关键词: 中美经贸  全球供应链  国家安全  国防论  选择性贸易保护主义
英文关键词: Sino-U.S. trade and economic relations, global supply chain, national security, national defense theory, selective trade protectionism
基金项目:
作者单位
李淑俊 山东财经大学国际经贸学院 济南 250014 
王小明 上海财经大学财经研究所 上海 200433 
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中文摘要:
      自奥巴马政府以来,特别是新冠肺炎疫情暴发后,国家安全在美国全球供应链调整中的影响日益彰显。在国家安全的视域下,美国政府调整全球供应链的逻辑依据为“国防论”与“选择性贸易保护主义”。美国的国家安全侧重国家利益与价值,全球供应链调整则诉求产品(或服务)的可替换性,二者交互作用,贸易保护主义性质的“国防论”与“选择性贸易保护主义”就成为分析美国全球供应链调整的理论分析框架。“国防论”侧重诠释具有国防意义产品(或服务)的进出口,而“选择性贸易保护主义”则分析了普通贸易实践对美国整体福利乃至国家安全的损害。美国在国家安全视域下调整全球供应链的路径依赖于软硬两种手段。一是无弹性的硬手段,表现为官僚体制、决策机制、相关法律制度与管理规范,美国全球供应链上的企业必须遵守,其具有吓阻功能。二是具有弹性的软手段,体现为国家战略以及政策说明等,其不具有强制性。基于此,这一研究有助于进一步厘清时下美国政府变动不居的对华经贸政策,构建合作与开放的中美经贸关系。
英文摘要:
      National security has been playing an increasingly important role in the U.S. adjustment of its global supply chain ever since the Obama administration and especially after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Viewed from the perspective of national security, the logical basis and implementation pathway for the U.S. adjustment of its global supply chain are mainly revealed in the following fact. U.S. national security puts a high premium on the values of national interests, whereas the adjustment of its global supply chain attaches great importance to the replaceability of products or services. Therefore, the “National Defense Argument” featuring trade protectionism and “selective trade protectionism” serve, in this paper, as the theoretical framework for analyzing the U.S. adjustment of its global supply chain. The “National Defense Argument” advocates restricting or prohibiting import and export of products or services with national defense significance while “selective trade protectionism” focuses on the damages done by general trade practices to the overall welfare of the U.S. and even to its national security. In a national security sense, the U.S. adjusts its global supply chain via two pathways. The first one is featured by hard measures that are closely related to the bureaucratic system and decision-making mechanism, as well as relevant legal systems and management norms, which act as a “deterrent” that forces companies in the U.S. global supply chain into submission. The second one is characterized by soft measures, which include U.S. national strategies and policy statements that are not mandatory, being buttressed by the hard measures. This analytical study is conducive to the clarification and understanding of the U.S. constantly changing economic and trade policies towards China.
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