文章摘要
唐宇明.美国国家安全人才培养与高等教育的融合[J].国际安全研究,2022,(3):130-156
美国国家安全人才培养与高等教育的融合
The Integration of National Security Talent Training and Higher Education in the United States: A Case Study of the US National Security Education Legislation and Its Program Implementation
  修订日期:2022-04-02
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2022.03.006
中文关键词: 美国  国家安全教育  国家安全人才培养  高等教育
英文关键词: US national security legal system, national security education, national security talent training, higher education
基金项目:
作者单位
唐宇明 国际关系学院 北京 100091 
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中文摘要:
      美国出台《1991年国家安全教育法》,标志着美国国家安全教育政策的法制化取得了重要成果,而这一法制化的进程却并非一蹴而就。美国国家安全教育政策的法制化进程始于第二次世界大战后,一直延续至冷战结束方告一段落,历时四十余年。其形成和发展过程与同时期美国国家安全法律体系的不断完善相伴随,其间突破了联邦政府不得干预教育的立法困境,体现了立法者国家安全观念的重要转变,最终推动实现了美国国家安全人才培养与高等教育的制度融合。依据该法开创的“国家安全教育计划”是美国落实国家安全教育政策的重要举措,通过数据分析观察该计划的发展实际和实施成效,发现当宏观的美国国家安全战略转化为具体的国家安全人才培养举措时,虽然两端表现出较高的关联性,但是政策与行动之间的传导脱节和错位在所难免。该计划诞生至今,持续开展近三十年,为美国国家安全人才建设发挥了积极作用,但也存在较明显的局限性,可以为中国做好新形势下高等教育范畴内的国家安全教育提供借鉴与反思。
英文摘要:
      The enactment of the National Security Education Act of 1991 (NSEA) in the United States did not happen overnight. The legislative process for the US national security education policy began after World War II and continued until the end of the Cold War, lasting more than 40 years. The entire legislative process was accompanied by the continuous and contemporaneous improvements of the US national security legal system, which resolved the legislative dilemma of no federal intervention in education, reflected a major shift in the national security mindset of lawmakers and ultimately materialized the institutional integration of national security talent training and higher education system in the United States. The National Security Education Program created in accordance with the NSEA is an important initiative to implement the US national security education policy. Based on data analysis, this paper intends to observe the actual development and implementation effectiveness of the Program. The findings are that when the US national security strategy is translated into specific implementation programs like the National Security Education Program, there are still disconnections and misalignments between policies and actions despite a higher correlation between them. The Program has been playing a significant and positive role in cultivating national security talents in the United States over the past 30 years ever since its birth, but it is also beset by obvious limitations. Lessons and experiences from the US can provide precious references for China’s national security education in its higher education system.
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