文章摘要
王蕾.自下而上的规范制定与网络安全国际规范的生成[J].国际安全研究,2022,(5):130-156
自下而上的规范制定与网络安全国际规范的生成
The “Bottom-up” Norm-setting and the Formulation of International Cybersecurity Norms
  修订日期:2021-12-15
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2022.05.006
中文关键词: 网络安全  国际规范  自下而上  多利益相关方  联合国信息安全开放式工作组
英文关键词: cybersecurity, international norms, bottom-up, multi-stakeholders, United Nations Open-ended Working Group (OEWG)
基金项目:
作者单位
王蕾 复旦大学发展研究院 上海 200433 
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中文摘要:
      信息通信技术的使用给国际和平与国家安全带来威胁,而网络安全国际规范还处在生成的过程中。各国政府致力于达成一定的规范共识,但常常受到国家间政治博弈的影响。在此情况下,互联网企业及非政府组织开始以“自下而上”的方式积极参与到规范制定中,并提出了不少有别于现有规范成果的规范倡议。互联网企业及非政府组织期望严格约束国家的网络空间行为,并在网络安全治理中扮演更重要的角色。它们提出的规范倡议从多个方面弥补了现有规范的不足。在现实中,主导规范制定的国家行为体与非国家行为体既相互利用,又持续博弈,互联网企业及非政府组织在规范制定进程中的权力与影响力受限。联合国信息安全开放式工作组及少部分国家有限度地向非国家行为体开放,使经过挑选的部分规范倡议进入政府间规范讨论议程,但国家间的分歧与博弈又阻止了这些规范倡议成为受到认可的国际规范。尽管如此,国家间博弈方式的转变,即越来越多的国家利用互联网企业及非政府组织的力量为政治博弈服务,以及公私关系更为平衡的新型网络安全治理模式的构建,为互联网企业及非政府组织争取更大的规范制定权力提供了机会。
英文摘要:
      The use of information and communications technology poses a great threat to international peace and national security, but the formulation of international norms for cybersecurity is still in progress. While states are striving to explore ways of reaching a normative consensus, they are often subject to political and power gaming. Against this backdrop, Internet corporations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have started to actively engage in the norm-setting process in a “bottom-up” manner and have proposed a variety of normative initiatives that are different from the existing achievements. Can this practice break the deadlock and accelerate the formulation of international cybersecurity norms? Internet corporations and NGOs expect strict regulations on states’ behaviors in cyberspace and want to play a more important role in cybersecurity governance. Their normative initiatives driven by these expectations have indeed reinforced existing international norms in many respects. However, the state actors that dominate the norm-setting process employ a strategy of both cooperation and struggle, with Internet corporations and NGOs having limited power and influence in the norm-setting process. The United Nations Open-ended Working Group (OEWG) and a small number of states have showed limited openness to non-state actors and thus made it possible for some selected normative initiatives to be brought onto the inter-governmental agenda. But disagreements and games among states still prevent these normative initiatives from becoming widely recognized international norms. Nevertheless, with the changing way of power gaming among states, an increasing number of states tend to draw support from Internet corporations and NGOs to serve their political goals, which, along with a more balanced public-private partnership in cyberspace governance, will provide good opportunities for Internet corporations and NGOs to strive for greater norm-setting influence.
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