文章摘要
宿景祥.柏拉图与大战略的历史源起[J].国际安全研究,2013,(4):3-26
柏拉图与大战略的历史源起
Plato and Historical Origins of the Grand Strategy
投稿时间:2013-05-10  修订日期:2013-06-06
DOI:
中文关键词: 柏拉图;大战略;反制战略;亚历山大大帝;亚里士多德
英文关键词: Plato, Grand Strategy, Counter-Strategy, Alexander the Great, Aristotle
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作者单位
宿景祥 中国现代国际关系研究院, 北京 100081 
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中文摘要:
      大战略是人类社会政治斗争的高级形式,无论在中国还是在西方,都可从历史深处发现某些大战略思想的源头。柏拉图是西方大战略思想史的一个重要起点,他不仅是历史上最伟大的哲学家、大战略家,也是当时地中海世界人文主义者集团的政治领袖。他用自己的知识论创立了人文主义大战略的纲要,并通过实践哲学加以检验,以证明其正确性和真理性。柏拉图最早揭示出人类的历史是理性发展的历史,理性是人和社会生存、进步乃至产生文化、文明和科学的源泉。但同时,人类的历史也是反理性的历史,理性与反理性的斗争是世界历史的主线。柏拉图所创建的“雅典学园”是青年政治领袖的培训基地,培养出了许多优秀的人文主义政治家。柏拉图去世后,马其顿国王亚历山大在“雅典学园”的指导下,按柏拉图“共和国”思想描绘的宏图远征波斯,写下了世界文明史上最光辉的一页。从战略学意义上说,柏拉图的大战略是对古代人文主义集团数百年的知识积累和结晶,是针对古代地中海世界统治集团的策略而制定的反制战略。亚历山大远征波斯,则是充分借助了统治集团的大战略而实施了人文主义大战略,从而取得了无与伦比的伟大成就。任何一项大战略,总会伴随着一项反制战略。在当今这个“大战略时代”,比以往任何时期都更需要深入研究、理解和认识大战略。
英文摘要:
      Grand Strategy is not a concept that can be strictly limited; however, it is the advanced form of political struggle in human society, and any non-military means on the state-level can be included in the scope of Grand Strategy. Whether in China or in the West, we can find some major sources of strategic thinking from history. Plato was an important starting point for Grand Strategy; he was not only the greatest philosopher and strategist in world history, but also the political leader of a Mediterranean humanist group in his time. Plato founded his own epistemological framework of Grand Strategy for humanism, and tested it through practical philosophy. Plato revealed that the human history is in effect the development of rationals and rationality is the source of survival, progress, culture, civilization for people and society. Meanwhile, human history is also a history of anti-rational, and the struggle between rational and irrational is the major theme of world history. Plato funded Athens Academy as a training base for young political leaders, and trained many outstanding humanist politicians. After Plato’s death, the Macedonian king Alexander the Great made the Persian Expedition under the guidance of the Athens Academy, according to Plato’s Republic ideals. He implemented the Grand Strategy of humanism, and has made great achievements unprecedented in history. Grand Strategy is always accompanied by Counter-Strategy. In the era of Grand Strategy like today, it is of more significance than ever to study and understand Grand Strategy properly.
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