文章摘要
布兰特利?沃马克著,颜震译.清代亚洲非对称关系的层次与多样性[J].国际安全研究,2013,(4):135-144
清代亚洲非对称关系的层次与多样性
Layers and Varieties of Asymmetry in Qing Asia
投稿时间:2013-04-25  修订日期:2013-05-25
DOI:
中文关键词: 非对称关系;中国清代;朝贡体系;亚洲基本特征;和平崛起
英文关键词: asymmetry, Qing China, tribute system, basic characteristic, peaceful leap forward
基金项目:
作者单位
布兰特利?沃马克著 美国弗吉尼亚大学政治学系教授,吉林大学名誉教授 
颜震译 吉林大学国际关系研究所,长春 130012 
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中文摘要:
      非对称关系不均匀的本质导致了互动中强者与弱者之间知觉的差异。尽管双方都在试图“处理”这种非对称关系——强者试图进行主导,而弱者会进行挑战——但大多数非对称关系在绝大部分时间里都是稳定的。这些关系是通过互动来维持的。亚洲非对称关系的独特之处在于中国的中心性。中国幅员辽阔的地域、中国的人口与生产力规模为其典型的非对称对外关系创造了条件,并且中国的中心区域和各地区之间也同样体现出非对称的特点。有清一代,亚洲各国曾彻底臣服于这种非对称关系。在非对称关系中存在三种标准,即对抗的双方能力差距悬殊、角色无法调换、无法消灭对方。清朝传统非对称关系的根基最后被摧毁,很大的原因是来自其内部以及西方殖民主义对中国的入侵。在当今全球经济存在诸多不确定性的形势下,中国的“和平崛起”(peaceful leap forward)则引发了关于中国传统治理与外交方式新地位的问题。
英文摘要:
      The uneven ground of asymmetric relationships creates differences in perspective between the larger and smaller sides that shape the interaction. Either side can attempt to “resolve” an asymmetric relationship—the larger side may try to dominate, the smaller side may challenge—but most asymmetric relationships, most of the time, remain stable. They are managed through interaction. Asian asymmetric relationships are particularly interesting because the centrality of China in terms of population and productivity created a situation in which its external relationships were typically asymmetric, and because of its scale the relationships between center and localities also had asymmetric characteristics. By the time of the Qing, Asia was thoroughly habituated to asymmetric relationships. There are three criteria for asymmetric relationships: significant differences in capacities, non-transposable roles, inability to eliminate partners. The fabric of Qing’s traditional asymmetry was destroyed largely by domestic reasons and the increasingly intrusive presence of Western imperialism. In the current era of global economic uncertainty, China’s “peaceful leap forward” raises the question of the relevance to its new status of China’s traditional habits of governance and diplomacy.
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