文章摘要
吴慧,商韬.国际法律程序中法官和仲裁员因素 ——以中菲南海争端仲裁案为例[J].国际安全研究,2013,(5):3-20
国际法律程序中法官和仲裁员因素 ——以中菲南海争端仲裁案为例
Judge and Arbitrator in International Legal Procedures:Implications for the Arbitral Tribunal of the South China Sea Dispute between China and the Philippines
投稿时间:2013-06-17  修订日期:2013-07-02
DOI:
中文关键词: 联合国海洋法公约;国际法律程序;法官;仲裁员
英文关键词: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, international legal procedures, judge, arbitrator
基金项目:
作者单位
吴慧 国际关系学院,北京 100091 
商韬 中国现代国际关系研究院,北京 100081 
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中文摘要:
      国际法律程序包含了司法程序和仲裁程序。在上述程序中,国际司法程序中的法官和国际仲裁程序中的仲裁员的个人因素都或多或少会在法律活动中产生一定影响。国际司法程序的法官具有独立性,需宣誓只效忠法院或法庭,但其独立性是相对的,选举阶段的政治因素以及当选后法官的国籍、思想、观念都会影响他/她对案件的处理;国际仲裁程序的仲裁员的独立性较之国际法院和国际海洋法法庭等国际司法机构的法官更显不足,争端当事方指定的仲裁员往往代表其利益,维护其立场。在国际法律程序中,法官和仲裁员会在程序规则的制定、传唤证人或专家及视察涉案地点、收受证据、查明事实和法律、对判决结果发表个别意见和反对意见等诸多法律环节拥有一定权利并发挥一定作用。了解和掌握上述法律程序以及法官和仲裁员的个人作用,对于中国已卷入的菲律宾发起的强制仲裁案件以及未来的潜在案件会有所帮助。在中国暂未参与仲裁程序,而且放弃指派仲裁员的情况下,对仲裁员因素的研究有利于监督和避免不利于中国的人为因素的影响,同时一旦中国在未来以某种形式参与到仲裁程序时,需在规则范围内去发挥和制造有利于中国的人为因素的影响。
英文摘要:
      The international legal procedures comprise judicial procedures and arbitration procedures, in which the personal factors of judges and arbitrators may have certain influences on these legal activities. The judges in the international judicial procedures shall have independence, swearing to be faithful to the court or tribunal. However, such independence is relative since the political factors during election, as well as the nationality, personal thoughts and ideas of a judge in service, will affect his or her handling of the cases. Meanwhile, the independence of the arbitrators in international arbitration procedures is insufficient compared with the judges in international judicial organizations such as International Court of Justice and International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. The arbitrator appointed by each party usually stands for and defends the benefit of this party. In the international legal procedures, judges and arbitrators can play a certain role in determining the procedure, calling witnesses or experts and receiving their evidence and visiting the localities to which the case relates, and attaching a separate or dissenting opinion to the award. Therefore, it is important for us to have a full understanding of the personal effects of the judges and arbitrators in international legal procedures in order to deal with the present arbitration cases China has participated in and the potential cases in future; it can also help supervise and avoid adverse personal factors when China does not participate in the arbitration proceedings or gives up appointing an arbitrator.
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