文章摘要
张颖,徐阳华.中国国家粮食安全战略演进及前瞻[J].国际安全研究,2015,(3):96-113
中国国家粮食安全战略演进及前瞻
The Evolution and Prospect of the Grain Security of China
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 中国粮食安全;粮食战略;粮食危机;中央“一号文件”;粮食生产能力
英文关键词: grain security of China; grain strategy; grain crisis; No.1 document of the CPC Central Committee; grain production capacity
基金项目:
作者单位
张颖 北京外国语大学国际关系学院 北京邮编:100089 
徐阳华 北京外国语大学国际关系学院 北京邮编:100089 
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中文摘要:
      粮食安全始终是关系中国国民经济发展、社会稳定和国家安全的全局性战略问题。自新中国成立以来,通过多次粮食战略的调整,已经形成了相对完善的粮食安全保障体系。中国的粮食产量总体上呈现的是波动式增长的趋势,这种增长与中央粮食战略的调整均有一定关系。国家粮食战略经过了20世纪50年代的从互助组到统购统销、60年代的进口粮食缓解粮食危机、70和80年代的家庭联产承包责任制直至 21世纪初期至今的从取消农业税到严防死守18亿亩耕地红线这样一个过程。中国粮食安全面临粮农种粮的相对收益较低的结构性矛盾,要解决这一矛盾,必须从国家层面加大投入资本和提高基础设施建设能力,大力推动农业科技创新,努力在提高粮食生产能力上挖掘新潜力,在优化农业结构上开辟新途径,在转变农业发展方式上寻求新突破,在促进农民增收上获得新成效。自2004年以来,中共中央、国务院“一号文件”多次聚焦“三农”问题,始终强调粮食安全的重要性,这凸显了国家在协调粮食政策运转过程中的重要作用及中共中央对粮食安全的高度重视。只有保住“安全口粮和放心粮”,才能保证中国到21世纪中叶顺利达到中等发达国家水平。
英文摘要:
      Grain security, power security and economic security are the three most important dimensions in security in today’s world. Grain security, with its strategic significance, is closely bound up with the national economic development, social stability as well as national security. A relatively successful grain security safeguarding system was established since the founding of new China. As a result of the government’s adjustments in grain strategy, grain production of China has grown with fluctuations and gone through different phases: the transition from mutual aid teams to state monopoly of purchase and marketing in the 1950s; the importation of grain in an attempt to ease the grain crisis in the 1960s; the implementation of house hold contract responsibility system in the 1970s and 1980s; the abolition of agricultural tax and the maintenance of the minimum 1.8 billion mu (a unit of area equal to one fifteenth of a hectare) of farmland from the early 21st century till now. Grain security of China is faced with the structural contradiction of relatively low profits for farmers. To solve the problem, China should increase investment and enhance the infrastructure construction capacity on the national level, promote innovation in agricultural science and technology, make efforts to increase growth potentials for grain production capacity, open up new ways in optimizing agricultural structure, seek new breakthroughs in changing agricultural development modes, and increase farmer’s income. Since 2004, the No.1 documents of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council have been targeted many times at the issues concerning agriculture, the rural country and farmers, putting a lot of emphasis on the importance of grain security, which highlights the key role government plays in coordinating the grain policy as well as the close attention that the CPC Central Committee pays to the grain security. Only when “secure grain and trustworthy grain” is achieved can China realize her goal of reaching the standards of a moderately developed country by mid 21st century.
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