文章摘要
肖 洋.地缘科技学与国家安全:中国北极科考的战略深意*[J].国际安全研究,2015,(6):106-131
地缘科技学与国家安全:中国北极科考的战略深意*
Science and Technology and National Security:the Strategic Significance of China’s Arctic Scientific Expedition
投稿时间:2014-12-17  修订日期:2015-08-26
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2015.06.005
中文关键词: 北极治理;北极科考;地缘科技学;北极理事会;北极战略;国家安全
英文关键词: Arctic governance, Arctic scientific expedition,geo-science and technology, Arctic Council, Arctic strategy, national security
基金项目:本文系是国家社会科学基金青年项目《欧盟低碳话语权对“丝绸之路经济带”的影响及中国对策研究》(项目批准号:15CGJ014)的阶段性成果。
作者单位
肖 洋 北京第二外国语学院国际问题研究中心,北京 ,100021 
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中文摘要:
      北冰洋航道的开通将推动中国国际海运布局的重心北移。利用国际法赋予中国的权益进行北极科学考察,成为中国了解北极地区自然资源和生态环境的必然选择,亦是支撑中国北极战略施行的关键。科技在国际格局演变中发挥着首位基础性作用,因此“地缘科技学”为北极研究提供新的思路。地缘科技学是以民族国家为研究主体,以地缘因素为基础,通过在特定空间范围内科学技术与政治经济的互动作用来谋求国家利益、维护国家安全的科学。现有的北极问题研究成果涉及了科技因素,但对非北极国家与北极国家的北极科技竞争态势重视不够。文章以地缘科技学为理论依据,梳理了北极科学研究的国际竞争格局演变过程,阐释了北极科考队中国护持北极权益的重要作用,剖析了中国参与北极科技竞争的时代背景与制约因素, 进而提出中国参与北极科技博弈的困境破解与应对理路。中国进行北极科考的战略深意为:审视北极科技竞争关系的攻守态势,积极推动与国家整体战略利益相关的科技创新,不断提升本国在北极地缘科技安全格局中的位势。对于科技竞争实力总体偏弱的中国来说,应清醒地认识到国际科技关系“零和”博弈的结构性特征,要高度重视北极地缘科技竞争的国家利益属性和国家安全属性,加强与北极国家的科技合作。
英文摘要:
      The opening of a new route in the Arctic Ocean will shift the focus of China’s international shipping pattern further north. Endorsed by the International Laws concerning Arctic expeditions for scientific purposes, China can explore the Arctic natural resources and eco-systems, and support the implementation of China’s Arctic strategy. With science and technology playing a central role in the evolution of international situations, geo-science and technology is a source of inspiration for new theories and approaches in Arctic studies. Geo-science and technology can be defined as a science which, with state and non-state scientific actors as the main researchers, geopolitical factors as the foundation of research, seeks to safeguard national interests and protect the whole nation by studying the interaction between science and technology, politics and economy in given space. Although current Arctic research covers science and technology, it does not pay sufficient attention to the competition in Arctic-related technologies between non-Arctic and Arctic countries. Based on the theory of geo-science and technology, this paper clarifies the evolution of Arctic scientific research pattern, illustrates the important role China’s Arctic scientific expedition team plays in defending China’s Arctic rights, analyzes the contemporary background and limitations of China’s participation in the Arctic science and technology, and finally offers suggestions for improvements. Strategically, China’s Arctic scientific expedition serves to scrutinize the competition in Arctic science and technologies, to promote scientific and technological innovation pertaining to strategic national interests, and to significantly improve China’s weak position in the security pattern of Arctic science and technology competition. China should have a clear understanding of the structural features of zero-sum game in international science and technology relations. Thus, the nature of national interests and national security in the Arctic geo-science and technology competition should be highlighted and scientific and technological cooperation with the Arctic countries strengthened.
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