文章摘要
汪舒明.叙利亚冲突与国际人道主义法的“劫难”[J].国际安全研究,2016,(4):112-131
叙利亚冲突与国际人道主义法的“劫难”
The Syria Conflict and the Disaster of International Humanitarian Law
投稿时间:2016-03-02  修订日期:2016-04-08
DOI:
中文关键词: 叙利亚冲突;国际人道主义法;“新常态”;反恐
英文关键词: Syria conflict; International Humanitarian Law; New Normal; anti-terrorism
基金项目:
作者单位
汪舒明 上海社会科学院国际问题研究所,上海 ,200020 
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中文摘要:
      国际人道主义法致力于规制武装冲突,以实现“军事需要”与“人道主义”之间的平衡。叙利亚冲突导致了震撼人类良知的人道主义灾难,也导致了国际人道主义法的巨大灾难。叙利亚冲突本身的特征、一些国家暴虐“反恐”的泛滥,国际人道主义法本身的缺陷,都影响了叙利亚冲突各方关于如何实现“军事需要”的考量,导致各方几乎都忽视了国际人道主义法的要求。以参与方的不平等和非对称为核心特征的叙利亚冲突,代表着全球范围内武装冲突的“新常态”。以平等为基础、以互惠为条件的既有国际人道主义法,已经难以满足此种“新常态”。在推进国际人道主义法的建设过程中,国际社会须将当代武装冲突的非对称性考虑在内,推动某种共同但有区别的责任与义务。国际社会迫切需要确定“恐怖主义”的定义,以免“恐怖主义”标签被进一步泛化和滥用。国际社会还需检视和减少国际人道主义法与国内外其他规范体系之间的矛盾和冲突,弥合不同规范体系之间的裂痕。
英文摘要:
      International Humanitarian Law (IHL) serves as a guide for actors’ behavior in armed conflicts, constructing a balance between “military” and “humanitarian” needs. The Syria conflict caused a humanitarian disaster, shocked human conscience, and inflicted a huge disaster on IHL as well. The Syria conflict as it is, the spread of the brutality of counter-terrorism by some countries, and flaws of the IHL itself, all exert their influence on actors’ view on ways to attain “military needs”, leading to the negligence of their responsibility under IHL. The Syria conflict, featured as unequal and asymmetric between different actors, marks the “New Normal” of armed conflicts all over the world since the Cold War. The established IHL, which is based on equality in status and reciprocity between different actors, has now proved unfit for the “New Normal”. While improving the future IHL, the international community should take into consideration the asymmetricality of conflicts, and promote common but differentiated responsibilities and obligations. A well-accepted definition of “terrorism” is urgently needed, so that the label of “terrorism” would not be used as a convenient excuse to avoid the application of IHL. The world community also needs to review and reduce contradictions and conflicts between IHL and other systems of norms, domestically and internationally.
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