文章摘要
严庆.族性安全的概念、理论与范式*[J].国际安全研究,2017,(3):3-18
族性安全的概念、理论与范式*
Ethnicity Security: The Concept, Theory and Paradigm
  修订日期:2017-03-24
DOI:
中文关键词: 族性;非传统安全;人的安全;国家安全
英文关键词: ethnicity, non-traditional security, human security, national security
基金项目:
作者单位
严庆 中央民族大学中国民族理论与民族政策研究院,北京 ,100081 
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中文摘要:
      族性是族类群体所具有的共同特质,是形成族类群体认同的纽带。族性认同是族类群体形成认知和行动一致性的基础,凭借动员的环节,族性及族性认同被带入政治场域,参与资源和权力的分配,并因循不同的政治行动呈现出族际关系、族类群体与国家关系、族类群体与国际关系的复杂交织和震荡联动,在不同的时空表现出不同的态势和影响。当族类群体的政治行动超出有序范围,以暴力、骚乱、恐怖行动、屠杀、清洗、武装冲突和分裂运动等形式出现时,便给相关群体带来恐惧与伤害,给社会和国家带来失序与动荡,甚至会危及国家主权和地区、国际的政治关系与秩序。族性安全,是指因族性动员而对人的生命、社会秩序、国家主权、国际关系等是否产生威胁或损害的状态。族性转化为安全议题需要以认同为基础、以动员为条件、以信念为支持,并在一定的族际结构中发生,因而需要族性认同、政治动员、民族主义、离散政治等理论的诠释。族性安全的研究范式可分为规范研究和经验研究。
英文摘要:
      Each ethnic group has its own ethnicity that serves as a bridge to its ethnic identity. Ethnic identity lays a foundation for a uniform ethnic awareness and consistent ethnic actions. By means of mobilization, ethnicity and ethnic identity were brought into the political field, getting involved in resource and power allocation. At different times in history, the interweaving ethnic relations, ethnic-state relations and ethnic-international relations demonstrated great complexity. Once an ethnic group’s political action gets out of control, violent incidents, riots, terrorist attacks, massacres, armed conflicts, separatist movements and ethnic cleaning will bring not only fear and harm to the relevant social groups but also disorder and unrest to the state. They can even endanger national sovereignty and damage the regional and global political order. While ethnic separatism is regarded as one of the non-traditional security issues, it is indeed an important form of ethnic political conflicts. The focus of concern for ethnic separatism tends to neglect the core part of ethnicity and the mobilization mechanism. When ethnic separatism is discussed, the spillover forms of ethnicity identity like race riot and ethnic conflict are not necessarily included. Ethnicity security stresses the threat and damage imposed by ethnicity mobilization on human life, social order, national sovereignty and international relations, etc. Because ethnic mobilization is a non-state action, it falls to the category of non-traditional security. The ethnicity-security related concept, theory and research paradigm raised in this paper will help to deepen the study of non-traditional security issues and effectively eliminate security risks. The research on ethnic security is a cross study of ethnic politics and international security, which employs knowledge and theories of ethnology, politics, sociology and other related subjects.
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