文章摘要
于春洋.族性视野中多民族国家族际政治问题比较研究*——基于尼日利亚与印度尼西亚民族国家建构的经验观察[J].国际安全研究,2017,(3):19-35
族性视野中多民族国家族际政治问题比较研究*——基于尼日利亚与印度尼西亚民族国家建构的经验观察
Countries from the Perspective of Ethnicity: A Case Study of the Nation 〖KG*9〗State Construction of Nigeria and Indonesia
  修订日期:2017-03-18
DOI:
中文关键词: 族性;族际政治;民族国家建构;尼日利亚;印度尼西亚
英文关键词: nationality, inter-ethnic politics, nation-state building, Nigeria, Indonesia
基金项目:本文系为中国博士后科学基金第58批面上一等资助项目(项目号:2015M580280)和中国博士后科学基金第9批特别资助项目(2016T90327)阶段性成果。
作者单位
于春洋 燕山大学文法学院,复旦大学民族研究中心,秦皇岛 ,066004 
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中文摘要:
      族性是影响多民族国家安全及其族际政治走向的关键变量。它既能促进族际政治整合、维护国家安全、有助于民族国家建构,也能导致族际政治冲突、危及国家安全、阻碍民族国家建构。以“族性”为分析视角,通过对尼日利亚与印度尼西亚民族国家建构历程的梳理及其族际政治问题的比较,其共性特征包括:族际政治问题的分析单位是多民族国家;族际政治问题虽然发生在现实中的多民族国家,却往往带有深刻的历史根源;政治与文化边界的重叠是族际政治问题产生的逻辑起点;国内不同民族群体无法得到平等公正对待是导致族际政治问题的核心因素;军事专政和腐败会增加族际政治问题的风险和国家安全的不确定性。解决多民族国家族际政治问题、确保国家安全的关键在于如何让一个在历史上和观念中都不曾存在的国家民族能够超越族性分界而被成功建构。结合两国国情提出应对策略:寻找重叠共识,建构文化多元、政治一体的国族共同体;借鉴差异政治和差别公民权利思想,探寻积极回应不同民族群体正当利益诉求、实现各族人民成果共享、利益均沾的政治制度、体制和机制;消除军人在政治生活中的影响,惩治腐败;探索包容促进多语言、多宗教和谐相处的民族政策。
英文摘要:
      Ethnicity is a key variable that affects the security of multinational countries and their inter-ethnic political trends. It can not only promote inter-ethnic political integration, safeguard national security, contribute to the construction of national states, but also lead to inter ethnic political conflicts, endanger national security and hinder the construction of nation-states. From the analytical perspective of ethnicity, this paper combs the nation state construction process of Nigeria and Indonesia and compares their inter-ethnic political problems. The common features shared by the two countries are as follows:1) both of them are multi-ethnic countries, which serves as the analytical unit in ethnic political issues; 2) ethnic political problems of the multi-ethnic countries are deeply rooted in history; 3) the overlap of political and cultural boundaries is the logical starting point of ethnic political problems; 4) unequal treatment on domestic different ethnic groups is the key factor leading to ethnic political problems; 5) military dictatorship and corruption can increase the risk of ethnic political issues and damage national security. The key to solving inter-ethnic political issues and safeguarding national security in multi-ethnic countries lies in how to successfully construct a historically and mentally non-existent nation that transcends separate ethnic groups. Taking into consideration the actual situations of Nigeria and Indonesia, this paper puts forth the following strategies: identifying an overlapping consensus, constructing a national community with diverse cultures and integrative political systems, drawing lessons from differential citizenship and politics to actively respond to the legitimate interests of all ethnic groups; establishing effective political systems, institutions and mechanisms to allow all ethnic groups to reap the fruits of developments, eliminating the influence of the military personnel in political life, cracking down on corruption and adopting an inclusive ethnic policy with different languages and religion coexisting in harmony.
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