文章摘要
艾喜荣.话语操控与安全化:一个理论分析框架*[J].国际安全研究,2017,(3):57-78
话语操控与安全化:一个理论分析框架*
Discursive Manipulation and Securitization: A Theoretical Framework
投稿时间:2016-12-20  修订日期:2017-02-26
DOI:
中文关键词: 话语操控;安全化;哥本哈根学派;话语突显;话语框定;话语定位
英文关键词: discursive manipulation, securitization, Copenhagen School, discursive salience, discursive framing, discursive positioning
基金项目:
作者单位
艾喜荣 榆林学院外国语学院,榆林 ,719000 
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中文摘要:
      安全化理论是哥本哈根学派的核心理论,尽管它提出话语在安全化中具有核心作用,但是对于话语在安全化过程中的具体作用机制却缺乏详尽系统的阐述和解释。鉴于哥本哈根学派在这个方面论述的缺失,一个基于“话语操控”的安全化理论分析框架的提出在一定程度上可以对安全化过程中话语的作用机制做出较为系统和具体的阐述。此理论分析框架把安全化过程中的“言语行为”或“话语实践”具体操作化为话语突显、话语框定和话语定位三个变量,即安全化行为主体通过这三个变量的话语操控手段或过程来实现对某一问题安全化程度高低的控制。首先,为了使某个问题具有较高的安全化程度,安全化行为主体通过话语突显使问题得到较高的公众关注度,从而有助于问题被纳入安全议事日程之中。其次,获得公众对问题的关注度之后,安全化行为主体就需要通过话语框定对问题的性质、严重性和解决方案等予以界定和阐明,以进一步塑造公众对问题的认知图式并能动员公众参与的积极性。最后,通过话语定位对相关方进行定位以确定各自职责并确立其行为,不同的定位会产生不同的权利和职责,进而使行为体的行为产生差异。
英文摘要:
      Securitization Theory is the core of the Copenhagen School. Although it proposes that discourse plays a central role in the securitization process, it seems to lack a systematic and detailed exposition as to how its specific mechanism works in the process. In view of this inadequacy of the Copenhagen School, a theoretical framework of securitization based on discursive manipulation is proposed which can, to a certain extent, make a detailed and systematic exposition of the specific mechanism of discourse in the securitization process. This theoretical framework operationizes “speech act” or “discursive practice” in the securitization process as three variables-discursive salience, discursive framing, and discursive positioning, namely, the securitizing actor relies on these three discursive manipulative means or processes to achieve the purpose of controlling the level of securitization of a certain issue. To give an issue a high level of securitization, the securitizing actor draws more public attention to it by means of discursive salience, helping it to be put on the security agenda; after attracting public attention, through discursive framing, the securitizing actor needs to define and present the nature, seriousness, and solution to the issue in order to shape cognition schemata of the public and mobilize the public participation enthusiasm; finally, through discursive positioning, the relevant parties are positioned so as to define their respective rights and obligations and shape their acts:different positioning produces different rights and responsibilities and accordingly different acts.
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