文章摘要
主父笑飞.国家安全竞争战略探析[J].国际安全研究,2017,(6):32-50
国家安全竞争战略探析
A Tentative Analysis of National Security Competitive Strategy
投稿时间:2017-08-02  修订日期:2017-09-15
DOI:
中文关键词: 竞争战略;国家安全;安全竞争优势;中国安全竞争战略布局
英文关键词: competitive strategy, national security, security competitive advantage, China’s strategic layout for security competition
基金项目:
作者单位
主父笑飞 中国社会科学院世界经济与政治研究所,北京 ,100732 
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中文摘要:
      随着全球化时代国家间复杂相互依赖的加深以及核网等恐怖平衡的强化,大国之间越来越难以通过大战方式来获取绝对安全。在这一背景下,大国间的国家安全斗争形式日益趋向和平竞争性质,即不再以追求你死我活的零和博弈为宗旨,而代之以争夺相对安全竞争优势,以压倒对方斗争意志从而迫使对方屈服为目的。借鉴西方成熟的商业竞争理论和原则,将其应用到国家安全斗争领域,可以发现,国家安全竞争战略的根本宗旨是以同质竞争来增强“以正合”的能力,又通过异质竞争来提升以奇胜的能力。着眼当前国际斗争形势,国家安全竞争应把握以下主要原则:保持和塑造自身独特价值,保持成本和收益的平衡,有所为有所不为,竞争对抗与合作共赢相结合以及同质竞争与异质竞争相结合等。而要获取国家安全竞争优势,首先在路径选择上要坚持经济实力领先策略,这是大国竞争优势的根本所系。其次,相对于“增益”,总成本最低化则是通过“止损”来确保竞争优势的不二法门。在此基础上,还要善于利用战略不对称的差异化、战略集中以及战略转型期内弯道超车等多种策略来获取竞争优势。新形势下,中国国家安全战略布局已初步形成有利的竞争态势,这种态势的核心是:办好自己的事情,避免与美国正面战略对撞,同时,加快打造非对称竞争优势以形成对美有效制衡态势。
英文摘要:
      With thedeepening of complex interdependence among nations and strengthening of balance of terror in both nuclear and cyber fields, great powers, in the era of globalization, find it increasingly difficult to acquire absolute security through launching large-scale wars. Against this backdrop, the national security struggle between great powers tends to take the form of peaceful competition. In other words, one power would subdue the other by destroying its will to fight and acquiring a relative competitive advantage rather than play a zero-sum game. Through the application of the western developed competition theories and principles in business to national security struggle, we find that the fundamental goal of national security competitive strategy is to employ the homogenous competition to engage the adversary and the heterogeneous competition to win. In light of the current international situation, national security competition follows such principles as follows:forge and maintain its distinctive values, strike a balance between costs and benefits, set priorities, integrate confrontation with cooperation, and combine homogenous competition with heterogeneous competition. When choosing the pathway to procuring the national security competitive advantage, great powers should, first of all, adhere to a “take the lead” strategy in economic development, which serves as a cornerstone for great powers’ competitive advantage. Compared with “increasing benefits”, “stopping losses” is the second important pathway to ensuring competitive edge through minimizing the overall cost of national security operations. In addition, great powers should make full use of such tactics as differentiation in asymmetric strategy, strategic concentration and overtaking in the curve during the period of strategic transition, which is also conducive to gaining competitive advantage. China has initially formed a favorable competitive momentum in the new situation. The core part of China’s strategic layout for national security competition lies in the following three aspects:manage well domestic affairs, avoid head-on strategic collision with the U.S., and have an effective check and balance against the U.S. by building up an asymmetric competitive advantage.
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