文章摘要
刘杨钺.全球安全治理视域下的自主武器军备控制[J].国际安全研究,2018,(2):49-71
全球安全治理视域下的自主武器军备控制
Arms Control of Autonomous Weapons in the Context of Global Security Governance
投稿时间:2017-07-13  修订日期:2017-10-22
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2018.02.003
中文关键词: 人工智能;军备控制;自主武器;国际安全;安全治理
英文关键词: artificial intelligence, arms control, autonomous weapons, security governance
基金项目:
作者单位
刘杨钺 国防科技大学文理学院,湖南 长沙,410074 
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中文摘要:
      随着人工智能的飞速进展,不断智能化的自主武器日益显现出伦理和安全风险,使得限制或禁止自主武器成为全球安全治理领域的新兴议题。相比其他军控对象,自主武器军控进程在过去几年中获得较快推进,其中《特定常规武器公约》会议已决定设立政府专家组专门探讨自主武器问题。文章系统梳理了自主武器军备控制的概念、伦理和安全争议,旨在通过这种梳理更好地理解自主武器军控进程发展的动因,并对这一进程的未来走向做出预测。当前,自主武器军备控制的主要动因集中在道德层面,特别是让机器自主决策杀伤引发的伦理忧虑。而从安全层面看,自主武器蕴涵的安全风险在其他新兴技术领域同样存在,而发展和使用自主武器带来的战略红利依然显著,这使得主要国家推动自主武器军控的意愿并不强烈。在权力政治与道德政治的博弈下,自主武器军控在可预见的时期内将难以形成实质性成果,稍有可能的是通过“软法”等非约束性方式塑造一定的国际规范。在这个过程中,中国可以发挥更加积极主动的作用,在确保战略利益的同时营造有利的大国形象。
英文摘要:
      With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, the constantly intellectualized autonomous weapons have posed profound ethical and security challenges, which commands worldwide attention to the restriction or prohibition of autonomous weapons in the field of global security governance. Compared to other types of arms control, the arms control of autonomous weapons has gained greater momentum in the past few years. The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons has decided to set up a special panel of governmental experts to focus exclusively on and probe into the issue of autonomous weapons. This paper systematically reviews the concept, ethics and security controversy over the arms control of autonomous weapons and aims to better explain the major driving force behind this arms control process and gauge its likely course in the future. Currently, the main motive of the arms control of autonomous weapons lies in moral considerations, especially the ethical concerns regarding the decision-making about killing by autonomous machines. Meanwhile, on the security level, the security challenges brought about by autonomous weapons are also seen in other new fields of technology and the strategic dividends from the development and use of autonomous weapons remain significantly lucrative, thus undermining the willingness of major powers to pursue a more substantial arms control outcome. Therefore, under the power politics and moral politics, it will be difficult to achieve substantive results in the foreseeable future, though it is possible for certain non-binding international norms to take shape. During this process, China can play a more active role and create a favorable image as a major power while ensuring its strategic interests.
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