文章摘要
王政达.美国对国际核秩序的侵蚀与弱化[J].国际安全研究,2018,(2):132-155
美国对国际核秩序的侵蚀与弱化
The US Erosion and Weakening of the International Nuclear Order
投稿时间:2017-12-20  修订日期:2018-01-08
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2018.02.000007
中文关键词: 国际核秩序;核价值观;核规范;核不扩散;美国国家安全战略;美国对核秩序的侵蚀与弱化
英文关键词: international nuclear order, nuclear values, nuclear norms, nuclear non-proliferation, the US national security strategy, the US erosion and weakening of the international nuclear order
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作者单位
王政达 中共中央党校研究生院,北京 北京,100091 
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中文摘要:
      美国是国际核秩序的主要创建者、参与者和受益者,维持稳定的国际核秩序符合美国的安全利益。但是,出于战争制胜型核战略、意识形态、盟友关系、地缘政治等方面的战略考量,美国在维持、巩固国际核秩序的过程中,也对国际核秩序造成侵蚀与弱化。美国仍然把核武器置于其国家安全战略的重要位置,重视战术核武器的作用,研发低当量核武器和钻地核弹,模糊了核武器与常规武器的界限,降低了核武器的使用门槛,侵蚀了核价值观。美国追求绝对核优势,部署全球导弹防御系统,研发全球即时打击系统,违反国际核规范与印度进行核能合作,弱化核禁忌等做法,不利于大国之间的战略稳定性,破坏了核规范。在防扩散领域,美国一贯奉行双重标准,缺乏全局观念,对他国进行安全威胁,刺激了核扩散。为维护国际核秩序,美国应从维护全球和平与稳定的长远考虑出发,降低核武器在国家安全战略中的作用,减少缩小核武器的使用范围,停止部署全球范围内的导弹防御系统,放弃防扩散的双重标准,推动核价值观、核规范和核不扩散体制向着更加完善的方向演进,保证国际核秩序平稳、有效运行。
英文摘要:
      A stable international nuclear order is in the interest of the United States, a key founder, participant and beneficiary of this order. However, out of strategic considerations for the war-winning nuclear strategy, ideology, alliances and geopolitics, the United States, in the process of maintaining and consolidating the international nuclear order, has been eroding and weakening it as well. The US still places nuclear weapons at the top of its national security strategic agenda, attaching great importance to tactical nuclear weapons, pursuing the research and development of low-yield nuclear weapons and nuclear earth penetrator weapons, blurring the boundary of nuclear weapons and conventional weapons, lowering the employment threshold of nuclear weapons, all of which has seriously eroded nuclear values. In pursuit of absolute nuclear superiority, the United States has been endeavoring to deploy the global missile defense system and develop the global instant target attack system. To make the situation even worse, it has blatantly violated the international nuclear norms by conducting nuclear energy cooperation with India and downplayed the nuclear taboos. All these practices are not conducive to the strategic stability among major powers and will thus further undermine nuclear norms. In the field of nuclear non-proliferation, the United States has been pursuing a double standard, not willing to take its global responsibility, which poses a threat to other countries’ security and has aggravated nuclear proliferation. In order to preserve the international nuclear order, the United States should adopt a global vision in order to maintain global peace and stability in the long run, reduce the role of nuclear weapons in its overall national security strategy, narrow the employment scope of nuclear weapons, stop the deployment of global missile defense system across the globe, abandon the double standard of nonproliferation, promote the evolution of nuclear values, norms and the nonproliferation system for a better end so as to ensure the smooth and effective operation of the international nuclear order.
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