文章摘要
胡波.美军海上战略转型:“由海至向陆”到“重返制海”[J].国际安全研究,2018,(5):73-97
美军海上战略转型:“由海至向陆”到“重返制海”
The Transformation of US Military Maritime Strategy: from
投稿时间:2018-05-17  修订日期:2018-06-25
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2018.05.000005
中文关键词: 美军海上战略转型;大国竞争;由海至向陆;重返制海
英文关键词: US military maritime strategic transformation, power competition, “From the Sea”, “Return to Sea Control”
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胡波  
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中文摘要:
      2009年特别是2012年以来,美国战略界对全球海洋战略环境的认知发生了重大变化,愈来愈将大国战略竞争视为美国面临的最大海上挑战,认为冷战结束后二十余年来的美军海上战略优势和行动自由正遭遇着中俄等国的“侵蚀”。鉴此,美军开始重新强调马汉传统和与大国间海洋控制的竞争,围绕“由海至向陆”到“重返制海”的海上战略转型,积极在战略、战术、作战概念、装备研发等领域进行全面系统的调整。文章通过对美军战略与政策文件的回顾与分析以及对其转型实践和具体行为的研究,回答美军海上战略为什么要转型、怎样转型以及转型的前景和影响等核心问题,力求对此次转型进行系统全面的分析。研究表明,此次转型聚焦“印太”、自下而上、突出体系联合及国际合作,相比历史上的历次重大海上战略转型,特点非常明显,中国等新兴大国海上崛起和技术变迁是其中最重要的两大动因。对于美军而言,转型仍然在路上,前期已经历了一个较长时间的酝酿,未来还将持续很长时间,尚存在较大变数,但大方向已经确定。由于此次转型很大程度上直接瞄准中国,其发展走向必将对中国海上安全环境构成重大威胁和影响。
英文摘要:
      Since 2009, especially after 2012, the US strategic community has undergone major changes in its understanding of the global maritime strategic environment, increasingly taking power competition as the biggest maritime challenge facing the United States. They believe that the US maritime strategic advantages and its freedom of navigation maintained for more than 20 years since the end of the Cold War are being eroded by such countries as China and Russia. In light of this, the US military begins to re-emphasize the Mahan’s doctrine and great power contest for maritime superiority. Moreover, proactive efforts, centered on the maritime strategic transformation, have been made to fully and systematically adjust the US maritime strategy, tactics, operational concepts, and equipment research and development. This article intends to provide a systematic and comprehensive answer to such core questions as the reasons, the means, the prospect and influence of the transformation by both recalling and analyzing US military previous strategy and policy documents related to the transformation and studying their specific practices and behaviors. The research shows that the growing maritime capabilities of the emerging powers like China and technological changes are two major driving forces for this transformation. The bottom-up transformation particularly focuses on the Indo-Pacific region, paying special attention to system integration and international cooperation. The ongoing transformation has been carefully considered at the early stage and will be studied further by the US Seapower for a long time in the future. Despite the high odds of change, the general direction has been clearly cut-and-dried. Given that this transformation zeroes largely in on China, its development trend will surely pose a major threat to and exert a huge impact on China’s maritime security environment.
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