文章摘要
李文杰.海洋保护区制度与中国海洋安全利益关系辨析[J].国际安全研究,2019,(2):45-67
海洋保护区制度与中国海洋安全利益关系辨析
An Analysis of the Relationship between Marine Protected Area System and China’s Marine Security Interests
投稿时间:2018-06-14  修订日期:2018-12-18
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2019.02.000003
中文关键词: 海洋保护区;海洋安全;人类命运共同体;新安全观
英文关键词: marine protected areas, maritime security, a community of shared future for mankind, new security concept
基金项目:
作者单位
李文杰 国际关系学院法律系讲师 北京 100091 
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中文摘要:
      “菲律宾南海仲裁案”之后,中国在南海面临的安全形势相比之前发生了极大转变,如美国、越南等国家均因该案而对其原有立场进行了调整。同时,随着近年来中国远洋活动能力的不断提升,中国的海洋发展利益已经突破领海、专属经济区等近海区域,不断向公海、国际海底区域等国家管辖范围之外的领域延伸,例如积极参与《国家管辖范围以外区域海洋生物多样性问题执行协定》谈判与国际海底区域勘探活动等,因而海洋安全利益的范围亦相应随之拓展。在全球现代海洋安全问题的范畴之内,“新安全观”作为“构建人类命运共同体”理念的有机组成部分,其对中国当前海洋安全形势下的需求具有极强针对性。而在海洋法规则中,海洋保护区制度无论在特征、目标还是功能方面,均与“人类命运共同体”理念具有一定的契合性,该制度适用与否的问题,对中国维护海洋安全利益具有重大战略意义。然而,由于《联合国海洋法公约》将全球海洋划分为多块不同性质的海域,导致该项制度在不同位置所能发挥的积极作用也同样有所区别,所以即便决定选择适用时,亦不能完全一概而论,应当始终坚持在不同时空维度下的灵活运用。
英文摘要:
      China’s security situation in the South China Sea has changed dramatically since the Philippines’ South China Sea arbitration case in that such countries as the United States and Vietnam have adjusted their original positions accordingly. Meanwhile, with the enhancement of China’s capacity to carry out distant ocean activities in recent years, China’s maritime development interests have expanded beyond offshore areas including territorial waters and exclusive economic zones and have continued to extend to the high seas, the international seabed area and other areas beyond national jurisdiction. As China has been proactively engaged in the negotiations of the International Agreement on Marine Biodiversity beyond Areas of National Jurisdiction and exploration activities in the international seabed areas, its scope of maritime security interests is being expanded accordingly. Within the domain of global modern maritime security issues, the “new security concept”, as an integral part of the conception of “building a community of shared future for mankind”, has particular pertinence to the actual needs of China under the current maritime security situation. Concerning the rules of the new law of the sea, the idea of establishing marine protected areas corresponds to the concept of “building a community of shared future” in terms of features, objectives and functions. The application of the system of marine protected areas is of great strategic significance for China to safeguard its maritime security interests. However, since the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has divided the global ocean into different sea areas of varying natures, the positive role that the system can play may vary widely from one area to another. Therefore, equally important is applying the system with reference to a particular time and place and not treating the system with a broad brush of generalization.
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