文章摘要
樊冰.美国国家安全情报传递机制论析[J].国际安全研究,2019,(2):114-136
美国国家安全情报传递机制论析
On the Transmission Mechanism of US National Security Intelligence
投稿时间:2018-06-24  修订日期:2018-12-15
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2019.02.000006
中文关键词: 美国安全情报机制;反恐情报;反扩散情报;反情报;网络威胁
英文关键词: US security intelligence mechanism, counterterrorism intelligence, counterproliferation intelligence, counterintelligence, cyber threat
基金项目:
作者单位
樊冰 上海对外经贸大学法学院国际关系学系讲师 上海 201620 
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中文摘要:
      作为世界上情报体系最为发达的国家,美国国家安全情报机制一直以来备受各方关注。九一一事件催生了美国情报体系全面而彻底的改革。经过十多年的努力,美国情报界实现了从机构林立的分散体系到由国家情报总监办公室领导的有机整体的重大转型。从总体机制来看,美国情报界现已形成情报机构一体化与任务一体化的双轮驱动体系,其情报传递网络不仅涵盖领导、协调、执行三个层级间的纵向传送,而且包括不同情报机构之间的横向协调,基本实现了情报整合与信息共享。美国国家情报总监办公室成为名副其实的美国情报界统领,其下设的反恐、反扩散、反情报和网络情报中心构成了美国国家安全情报分类传递机制的四大支柱。通过比较,四大分类传递机制中最为成熟的是反恐中心,其次是反情报与安全中心,再次是网络威胁情报整合中心,最后是反扩散中心。由于各类情报机制自身发展程度的不同,其改革过程中所面临的挑战也不一样。美国国家安全情报传递机制的改革“瓶颈”既有发展不足导致的结构性困境,也有外部安全环境变化带来的挑战。此外,特朗普政府上台后的一系列政策举措使得美国国家安全情报体系的发展方向呈现出新的态势。
英文摘要:
      The national security intelligence mechanism of the US has been considered to be the most developed one in the world and attracting broad attention from all sides. The September 11 terrorist attacks triggered a comprehensive and radical reform of the US intelligence system. With ceaseless efforts over more than a decade, the US intelligence community has achieved a major transformation from an institutionally decentralized system to an integrated one led by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Viewed from the overall operation of the mechanism, the US intelligence community has now formed a two-wheel drive system featuring the integration of intelligence agencies and the integration of intelligence missions. Its intelligence transmission network not only covers the vertical one from leadership to coordination to implementation, but also includes the horizontal coordination and cooperation among different intelligence agencies, which has basically realized intelligence integration and information sharing. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence has become a veritable commander in chief in the US intelligence community with the National Counterterrorism Center, National Counterproliferation Center, National Counterintelligence and Security Center, and Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center as the core pillars of the overall US national security intelligence transmission mechanism. By comparison, the most full-blown of the four types of intelligence centers and transmission mechanisms is the National Counterterrorism Center, followed by the National Counterintelligence and Security Center, the Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center and finally the National Counterproliferation Center. Across all levels of development, various intelligence mechanisms face different challenges in the process of reform. The bottlenecks in the mechanism reform of the US national security intelligence transmission include not only structural dilemmas caused by underdevelopment but also challenges brought about by changes in the external security environment. In addition, a series of policy initiatives formulated by the Trump administration have signaled a new development trend in the US national security intelligence system.
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