文章摘要
汪舒明.“反恐”战与以色列军事伦理的嬗变[J].国际安全研究,2019,(3):128-154
“反恐”战与以色列军事伦理的嬗变
“Fighting Terror” and the Evolution of Israel’s Military Ethics
  修订日期:2018-11-21
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2019.03.006
中文关键词: 以色列安全;反恐战;阿萨.卡希尔;反恐军事伦理
英文关键词: Israel, “War on Terror”, Asa Kasher, military ethics of “fighting terror”
基金项目:
作者单位
汪舒明 上海社会科学院国际问题研究所 上海 200020 
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中文摘要:
      在国际舆论中,21世纪以来以色列“反恐战”日渐趋向残酷无情,但从以色列自身的视角来看,以色列的“反恐”实践总体上并未脱离以色列国防军“洁净武装”传统信条的“轨道”。以色列“反恐”规范的创制与以色列的“反恐”实践呈现为一种“齐头并进”、相辅相成的态势。“反恐”实践呼唤“反恐”规范的创制,而“反恐”军事伦理诠释和引导“反恐”实践。外延扩大了“恐怖主义”的定义、模糊化平民和战斗人员的区别、重新阐释了“军事必要性”和保护本国战斗人员生命优先于减少连带损伤、另行解释了动用武力的“适度性”等,这些构成了卡希尔和亚德林提出的以色列“反恐”军事伦理的特征。以色列的“反恐”实践及其军事伦理在国际学术界和国际舆论界都引发了激烈的论争,在国际社会仍然以负面态度为主。但以色列国内社会政治的右倾化和宗教化倾向,却为之提供了强大的内在支持。在“民族”与“民主”之间,以色列的民意“天平”出现了向“民族”的明显偏转。秉持宗教锡安主义立场的宗教势力大举渗入以色列国防军,对以色列国防军的“反恐”军事伦理嬗变产生了深远影响。
英文摘要:
      According to international public opinion, Israel’s “fighting terror” has become increasingly merciless since the beginning of the 21st century. However, from Israel’s perspective, the practices of “fighting terror” are still largely in line with the traditional ethical code of “purity of arms” advocated by Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Actually, the creation of Israel’s combat code and its practices in “fighting terror” walk hand-in-hand and work in a mutually reinforcing way. The practices call for the creation of norms while the “fighting terror” military ethics interpret and guide the practices. The extended definition of “terrorism”, the blurred distinction between civilians and combatants, “military necessity”, the precedence given to the protection of combatants’ lives over the minimization of collateral damage, the alternative way to interpret the “proportionality” of violence, all constitute the features of Israel’s military ethics in “fighting terror” as proposed by Asa Kasher and Amos Yadlin. Israel’s ‘fighting terror’ practices and its military ethics have triggered a heated debate in both the international academic community and the field of international public opinion and thus sparked negative reactions towards Israel. However, the right deviationist trend and religionization in social politics of Israel have rendered them strong internal momentum. Between “nation” and “democracy”, Israel’s public opinion has shifted the balance in favor of “nation”. Influential religious forces holding high the banner of Zionism have massively infiltrated into the IDF, which will exert a far-reaching impact on the evolution of IDF’s military ethics of “fighting terror”.
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