文章摘要
宛程.“伊斯兰国”核心意识形态的渊源和实践[J].国际安全研究,2019,(4):76-107
“伊斯兰国”核心意识形态的渊源和实践
The Origin and Practice of the Core Ideology of the “Islamic State”
  修订日期:2018-11-19
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2019.04.004
中文关键词: “伊斯兰国”;“哈里发国”;“圣战”;核心意识形态
英文关键词: the “Islamic state”, revitalizing the Caliphate, advocating violent jihad, core ideology
基金项目:本文系刘中民教授主持的2016年度国家社会科学基金重大项目“全球伊斯兰极端主义研究”(项目批准号:16ZDA096)和杨恕教授主持的国家社科基金“一带一路”专项项目“中亚五国研究与数据库建设”(项目批准号:17VDL003)、国家社科基金重点项目“涉疆反恐形势、机制与对策研究”(项目批准号:15AZD018)、第62批博士后科学基金面上一等资助(项目批准号:2017M620161)以及第11批博士后科学基金特别资助(项目批准号:2018T110402)
作者单位
宛程  
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中文摘要:
      对于“伊斯兰国”而言,建构和输出意识形态至关重要。特定内容的意识形态不仅催生了“伊斯兰国”组织,并最终实现了其“领土”形式。在内容上,“伊斯兰国”汲取了之前政治伊斯兰的理论建构成果,并在“圣战”组织的实践过程中确立了复归的“哈里发国”和暴恐化的“圣战”两大核心意识形态。不仅如此,“伊斯兰国”还对两大核心意识形态进行了激进化实践。在复归的“哈里发国”方面,“伊斯兰国”试图通过宣示权力和荣耀来奠定其合法性基础,并以此来操弄族群身份认同,以吸引更多支持者;在暴恐化的“圣战”方面,“伊斯兰国”致力于对暴力进行形塑和展示,推动“暴力仪式观”的传播,从而造成了新恐怖的弥散;此外,“伊斯兰国”还试图通过篡改伊斯兰教义教法的方式来建构复归的“哈里发国”同暴恐化的“圣战”之间的联系。在“伊斯兰国”遭遇地面战场的失利之后,这些意识形态及其实践会为其续命。鉴于这种情况,需要对“伊斯兰国”的核心意识形态及其实践给予更多关注并进行深入研究,从而提供应对之策。
英文摘要:
      It is of paramount importance for the “Islamic State” to construct and export its ideology that not only culminated in the establishment of the organization, but also finally led to the formation of its “territorial” form. In terms of the ideological content, by learning from the previous fruits of political Islam, the “Islamic State” has established, in the practice of jihad, its own ideology with two core concepts: revitalizing the Caliphate and advocating violent jihad. Moreover, the “Islamic State” has carried out the radicalized practices of these two concepts. Regarding the Caliphal revitalization, the “Islamic State” has sought to lay its legitimacy foundation by declaring its almighty power and glory so as to manipulate the issue of ethnic identity and attract more supporters. As regards advocating violent jihad, the “Islamic State” has been committing itself to shaping and demonstrating violence so as to promote the dissemination of the concept of violent rituals and create an atmosphere of terror. In addition, the “Islamic State” intended to establish the connection between the above-mentioned two concepts by tampering with the creed of Islam. It is highly likely that the particular ideology and practice of ISIS will sustain its existence even after it suffered serious defeats on the battlefield. Against this backdrop, more attention should be given to and more in-depth research should be done on the core ideology and practice of the “Islamic State” in order to enact effective counter-measures.
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