文章摘要
王晋.“远敌”与“近敌”:伊斯兰极端主义的内部论争[J].国际安全研究,2019,(4):138-156
“远敌”与“近敌”:伊斯兰极端主义的内部论争
“Near Enemy” or “Far Enemy”: Disputes among Islamic Extremists
  修订日期:2018-10-29
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2019.04.006
中文关键词: 伊斯兰极端主义;伊斯兰恐怖主义;赛义德.库特布;马克迪西;阿布.慕斯阿德.苏里;远敌;近敌
英文关键词: Islamic extremism, Islamic terrorism, Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, Sayyed Qutb, Abu Mus’ab al-Suri
基金项目:本文系国家社会科学基金重大项目“全球伊斯兰极端主义研究”(项目编号:16ZDA096)
作者单位
王晋  
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中文摘要:
      作为“远敌”的西方世界和“近敌”的伊斯兰世界“叛教者政府”,哪一个才是优先打击目标,是伊斯兰极端主义者们论争的焦点问题之一。“远敌”和“近敌”的排序,也在很大程度上影响着伊斯兰极端组织的战略实践。以“远敌”为优先袭击目标的伊斯兰极端组织,往往将美国和西方国家在阿拉伯世界的人员和利益作为袭击重点,同时努力向西方世界内部渗透,伺机发动大规模的暴恐袭击,挫败“异教徒”在伊斯兰世界的势力,促使穆斯林“觉醒”,进而建立一个涵盖所有伊斯兰世界的“哈里发国”;而以“近敌”为优先袭击目标的伊斯兰极端组织,则将所在国的政权和领导人视为“叛教者”,其优先的战略目标是对所在国或者周边地区发动暴恐袭击,通过暴力活动制造混乱进而夺取政治权力,建立“伊斯兰国家”。不同伊斯兰极端组织在“远敌”和“近敌”优先次序上的实践,源于不同的伊斯兰极端主义政治逻辑,因此对伊斯兰极端主义“远敌”和“近敌”战略的分析,有助于我们理解伊斯兰极端主义的政治逻辑,为国际社会更好地应对伊斯兰极端主义思想及实践提供一定启示。
英文摘要:
      Although both the “far enemy” represented by the western world and the “near enemy” represented by “Kufr” governments in the Arab-Islamic world are “mortal enemies” of Islamic extremists, which enemy should be the priority target of strike has become one of the heatedly debated issues among Islamic extremists. The answer to this question largely determines the concrete strategic practices of Islamic extremist organizations. On the one hand, the Islamic extremists who advocate the “far-enemy priority” consider the individuals and interests of the United States and other western countries in the Arab world the focus of their attack, try to infiltrate into the western world and watch for an opportunity to launch massive terrorist attacks in due course so as to facilitate the downfall of Islamic “Kufr” governments, prompt Muslims to “awaken” and then create a “Caliphate” in the Islamic world. On the other hand, other Islamic extremists believe that it is of overarching importance to target and overthrow the “Kufr” governments in the Arab-Islamic world and facilitate the establishment of an “Islamic State” by plotting terrorist attacks and seizing political power through violent activities and chaos. Different opinions concerning the prioritization of “near enemy” and “far enemy” stem from diametrically different political logic followed by varied Islamic extremist organizations. Therefore, the analysis of their strategic line of thinking will be conducive to a better understanding of the political logic and ideologies of Islamic extremists and will shed some light on the international community in their grappling with the ideologies and practices of Islamic extremist organizations.
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