文章摘要
魏志江,陶莎.辽帝国的国家安全思想研究[J].国际安全研究,2019,(5):29-54
辽帝国的国家安全思想研究
A Study of the National Security Thoughts of the Liao Empire
投稿时间:2019-05-31  修订日期:2019-06-26
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2019.05.002
中文关键词: 辽帝国;因俗而治;一元两制;国家安全;宗藩体系;边疆安全
英文关键词: Liao Empire, rule by customs, national security, suzerain-vassal relationship, frontier security
基金项目:
作者单位
魏志江 Vice Dean, Professor and Ph.D. Supervisor, School of International Relations, Sun Yat-sen University Zhuhai, 519000 
陶莎 Vice Dean, Professor and Ph.D. Supervisor, School of International Relations, Sun Yat-sen University Zhuhai, 519000 
摘要点击次数: 48
全文下载次数: 45
中文摘要:
      9世纪末10世纪初,契丹族建立了中国历史上横跨东北亚和内陆亚洲的庞大帝国——辽帝国。作为由游牧民族建立起的多民族中央集权制国家,辽帝国探索出了一套以“因俗而治”和“一国二元”体制为制度框架的国家政治和以农耕与游牧并重的国家安全思想。为了构建以辽帝国为中心的世界秩序,辽帝国实行和战并用,以儒家德治思想为对外安全的指导思想,构建多层次的羁縻、封贡、宗藩体系以拱卫辽帝国的安全发展,不仅确立了对宋朝的外交优势,且先后使东亚的高丽和西夏以及内陆亚洲的高昌回鹘、喀拉汗王朝、花剌子模等向其朝贡,建立以辽帝国为中心的宗藩体系。故辽之所以“雄长二百年”,皆因虽尚武,但注重儒家德治教化,处“四战之地”而能应对得宜。为了维护西北边疆安全和保障从内陆亚洲到东亚丝绸之路的畅通,辽帝国对漠北蒙古高原进行军事征伐,征抚并用,在镇州设立西北路招讨司,设立一系列边防城池,以建立边疆安全的防御体系,并采用屯田和移民实边等方式展开对漠北蒙古和西北边疆的经略,从而建立了西北边疆安全防御体系,保障了从漠北蒙古到西域乃至欧洲的草原丝绸之路的畅通。
英文摘要:
      In the late 9th and early 10th century, the Khitan people founded the Liao Empire, a gigantic empire that spanned Northeast Asia and inland Asia in Chinese history. As a multi-ethnic highly-centralized state established by the nomads, the Liao Empire created its national politics with an institutionalized framework featuring “rule by customs” and “dual systems in one state” as well as national security thoughts that laid equal stress on farming and nomadism. In order to build a world order centered on the Liao Empire, the Empire resorted to both peaceful means and tactics of war. On the one hand, under the guidance of the Confucian ideology—“rule of virtue”, the Empire established Jimi system (an autonomous administrative and political organization system), tributary system and suzerain-vassals system in order to guarantee its safe development. As a result, the Liao Empire not only secured its diplomatic advantage over the Song Dynasty but also successively made Koryo and Western Xia (Xixia) in East Asia as well as the inland Asian Qocho (Gaochang Huihu), Kara-khanids and Khwarazm kingdoms pay tribute to it, which enabled the Liao Empire to be able to survive numerous wars and thrive for two hundred years. On the other hand, in order to safeguard the security of its northwest frontier and protect the Silk Road from inland Asia to East Asia, the Liao Empire carried out military expeditions on Outer Mongolia, pursued both suppression and pacification policies and built a set of border cities for the sake of border defense. In addition, the Liao Empire adopted such measures as opening up wasteland for cultivation of farm crops and encouraging migration to the northwest frontier to implement its strategy towards Outer Mongolia so as to construct a frontier defense system and pave a smooth way for the Grassland Silk Road from Outer Mongolia to the Western Regions (Xiyu) and even to Europe.
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