文章摘要
徐能武,龙坤.联合国CCW框架下致命性自主武器系统军控辩争的焦点与趋势[J].国际安全研究,2019,(5):108-132
联合国CCW框架下致命性自主武器系统军控辩争的焦点与趋势
The Focus and Trend of Debate on Arms Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems under the UN CCW Framework
投稿时间:2018-10-25  修订日期:2018-12-22
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2019.05.005
中文关键词: 《特定常规武器公约》;致命性自主武器系统;人工智能;军备控制
英文关键词: Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems, artificial intelligence, arms control
基金项目:
作者单位
徐能武 Professor and Doctoral Supervisor, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, National University of Defense Technology Changsha, 410072 
龙坤 Professor and Doctoral Supervisor, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, National University of Defense Technology Changsha, 410072 
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中文摘要:
      在人工智能革命背景下致命性自主武器系统(LAWS)军控逐渐成为国际热点议题,联合国《特定常规武器公约》(CCW)会谈机制作为其核心平台召开了三次非正式专家会议和三次正式政府专家组会议。技术层面,主要探讨了LAWS的定义和特点,各方基本同意LAWS军控不应当妨碍民用人工智能技术创新,但对目前是否应制定及如何制定LAWS可行定义等问题存在分歧;伦理层面,讨论焦点在于LAWS对于人权和道德的冲击,各方基本认为不应将生死决定权让渡给机器,但对机器是否作为道德主体等问题存在分歧;法律层面,主要关注LAWS对现有国际人道法的冲击,各方基本同意现有国际人道法依旧适用于LAWS管控,但在是否需要除现有国际法之外增加监管机制等问题上存在分歧;军事层面,主要探讨了LAWS扩散风险对战略稳定性的冲击及存在的局限性等问题,各方基本同意研发部署LAWS的责任在于国家和指挥官,但在预防性禁止还是暂时放任,甚至鼓励发展LAWS等问题上存在分歧。展望未来,这一军控机制可能推动制定各方接受的LAWS工作定义,探索将伦理道德嵌入LAWS的可能性与方法,建立LAWS的法律审查机制,拟定暂停部署LAWS的政治宣言或法律文书。由此,中国应继续积极参与CCW框架下LAWS军控探讨,推动管控相关战略风险及伦理法律挑战,以维护自身国家利益和人类安全福祉。
英文摘要:
      In the context of the rapid growth of big data and the significant advancement of computing power and algorithms, there is an increasing necessity and urgency for limiting or even prohibiting the research and development of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS) in order to reduce and prevent the growing legal, ethical, and security risks in the military field. Since 2013, LAWS has become a topic of heated debate in the global arms control arena and the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) has become a core platform on which three informal expert meetings and three formal governmental expert meetings have been convened. Technically, the meetings have mainly discussed the definition and characteristics of LAWS with all parties basically agreeing that the arms control over LAWS should not impede the technological innovation of artificial intelligence (AI) in civil engineering while remaining divided on whether and how to formulate a feasible definition of LAWS. Ethically, the meetings have primarily focused on the impact of LAWS on human rights and morality with all parties generally agreeing that the right to decide life and death should not be delegated to machines while remaining divided on whether machines may become a moral subject. Legally, the meetings have been principally targeted at the impact of LAWS on the existing international humanitarian law (IHL) with all parties on the whole agreeing that IHL is still applicable to the regulation of LAWS while remaining divided on whether additional regulatory mechanisms other than the existing international law should be introduced. Militarily, the meetings have discussed the proliferation risks of LAWS with all parties essentially agreeing that the responsibility for the development and deployment of LAWS rests with states and their military commanders while remaining divided in terms of possible policy choices among making preventive prohibitions or taking a hands-off approach or even encouraging the development of LAWS. Looking ahead, the CCW is likely to push forward the formulation of a working definition of LAWS that can be basically accepted by all parties, explore possible methods of embedding human ethics and morality into autonomous systems, establish a legal review mechanism of LAWS and formulate a political declaration or legal instrument advocating suspension of LAWS deployment by all states. In this context, China should continue to actively participate in and lead the discussions about the arms control of LAWS under the framework of CCW, deal carefully with the ethical and legal challenges as well as strategic risks brought by LAWS and safeguard China’s national interests as well as the security well being of mankind in the era of AI.
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