文章摘要
刘国柱,尹楠楠.美国国家安全认知的新视阈:人工智能与国家安全[J].国际安全研究,2020,(2):135-155
美国国家安全认知的新视阈:人工智能与国家安全
A New Perspective on the US National Security Perception: Artificial Intelligence and National Security
投稿时间:2019-05-23  修订日期:2020-03-05
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2019.05.007
中文关键词: 安全认知;人工智能;国家安全;战略选择
英文关键词: security awareness, artificial intelligence, national security, strategic choice
基金项目:
作者单位
刘国柱 Professor and Ph.D. Supervisor, Institute of World History and Center for American Studies, Zhejiang University 
尹楠楠 Professor and Ph.D. Supervisor, Institute of World History and Center for American Studies, Zhejiang University 
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中文摘要:
      人工智能作为一种革命性技术,正在从根本上变革国际社会的发展进程及方式。面对这一发展趋势,美国已将人工智能提升到国家安全的高度。人工智能对美国国家安全的影响主要存在于三个方面:首先,人工智能是影响和塑造未来美国国家安全的核心变量。人工智能能够优化美国在国际政治格局中的力量配比,弥合并纠正美国社会内部的分裂和失序状况,并助推美国军事实力实现“跨越式”发展。其次,有效克服人工智能的负面效应是确保未来美国国家安全的关键。人工智能可能引发诸多社会和道德问题,其固有的缺陷也将增加战争决策的风险成本,还可能增加武装冲突的频率和强度。最后,美国强调中国人工智能的快速发展对未来美国国家安全构成严重“威胁”。中美在人工智能领域的竞争已无法避免,美国认为中国正在试图“挑战”美国在高新技术领域的领导地位;为应对美国在人工智能领域对华遏制政策,中国应制定和形成人工智能研发以及应用规则和规范;通过制度化协调与合作来规制中美关系,努力避免“科技冷战”的发生。
英文摘要:
      As a subversive and revolutionary technology, artificial intelligence (AI) will fundamentally change the development process of the international community. The United States has been acutely and accurately aware of this trend and thus has incorporated artificial intelligence into national security. The impact of artificial intelligence on US national security mainly lies in three aspects: Firstly, AI is a core variable that will influence and shape the future of US national security in that it can enhance the US position in the international power distribution, bridge and remedy the division and disorder within the American society and promote the leap-forward development of the US military power. Secondly, it is of vital importance to ensure US national security in the future by effectively overcoming the negative effects of AI. Artificial intelligence might cause a series of social and moral challenges and its inherent flaws might increase the cost of risk in making war-related decisions as well as the frequency and intensity of armed conflicts. Finally, the United States emphasizes that the rapid development of China’s AI technology will pose a serious threat to the US future national security. It is inevitable that China and the United States will face increasingly fierce competition in the field of artificial intelligence due to the fact that the United States believes China is trying to challenge its leadership in the high-tech industry. In order to deal with the US policy of containing China in the AI field, China should have a clear roadmap for the research, development and application of AI, regulate the Sino-US relations through institutionalized efforts and avoid the outbreak of a tech cold war.
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