文章摘要
吴慧,张欣波.国家安全视角下南极法律规制的发展与应对[J].国际安全研究,2020,(3):3-20
国家安全视角下南极法律规制的发展与应对
The Development of Antarctic Legal Regulations and Policy Recommendations for China: A National Security Perspective
  修订日期:2020-03-01
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2020.03.001
中文关键词: 国家安全;南极法律规制;发展趋势;中国对策
英文关键词: national security, Antarctic legal regulations, trends of development, China’s countermeasures
基金项目:
作者单位
吴慧 WU Hui, Vice President, Professor and Doctoral Supervisor, University of International Relations Beijing, 100091
ZHANG Xinbo, Assistant Research Fellow, Institute of Maritime Security, China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations Beijing, 100081. 
张欣波 WU Hui, Vice President, Professor and Doctoral Supervisor, University of International Relations Beijing, 100091
ZHANG Xinbo, Assistant Research Fellow, Institute of Maritime Security, China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations Beijing, 100081. 
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中文摘要:
      2015年《中华人民共和国国家安全法》从法律层面界定了中国国家安全的内涵和外延,其中包括维护在南极等新型领域的国家安全。由于中国南极事业的开展须遵循一系列的南极法律规制,因此南极法律规制的发展对中国在南极的国家安全利益具有重要意义。南极法律规制的主要内容包括和平利用与非军事化、搁置和冻结主权要求、科学研究自由、海洋生物资源养护、海事安全以及全面保护环境等。近年来,随着人类南极活动的扩展,南极法律规制出现了一些前沿性的问题,如南极主权要求国仍然强化权利主张,南极旅游和非政府活动、航空活动、特别区域保护等规则酝酿发展以及南极环境损害责任制度面临重新谈判等。这些趋势将对中国在南极的国家安全利益产生深远影响,中国可通过国内立法、发布政策文件、积极行使享有的国际法权利等途径来维护国家的南极利益。
英文摘要:
      The National Security Law of P.R.C. (2015) explains the meaning and implications of China’s national security at the legal level, of which the maintenance of national security in such new domains as Antarctica is part and parcel. China’s Antarctic exploration shall abide by a series of Antarctic legal regulations whose development is of strategic importance to China’s national security interests in Antarctica. The main contents of Antarctic legal regulations include peaceful use and demilitarization, shelving and freezing sovereignty disputes, freedom of scientific research, conservation of marine living resources, maritime security and overall environmental protection. In recent years, with the extension of the human “footprint” to the more pristine parts of the continent, the Antarctic legal regulations face some cutting-edge issues like the continuous efforts made by Antarctic claimants to strengthen their own respective territorial positions, the potential development of rules and regulations concerning Antarctic tourism, non-governmental activities, aviation activities, special conservation areas, and renegotiations of the Antarctic environmental damage liability system. These trends will surely exert a far-reaching impact on China’s national security interests in Antarctica. China can safeguard its interests more efficiently in Antarctica through enacting specific legislation, issuing relevant policy documents and actively exercising its international law rights.
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