文章摘要
晋继勇.美国全球卫生安全战略及其对世界卫生安全体系的挑战[J].国际安全研究,2020,(3):76-95
美国全球卫生安全战略及其对世界卫生安全体系的挑战
The Health Security Strategy of America and Its Challenges to Global Health Security System
  修订日期:2020-04-17
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2020.03.004
中文关键词: 特朗普政府;全球卫生安全战略;美国优先;新冠肺炎疫情
英文关键词: Trump administration, Global Health Security Strategy, infectious diseases, America First, COVID-19
基金项目:
作者单位
晋继勇 JIN Jiyong, Associate Professor, Ph.D. Supervisor and Deputy Dean, School of International Relations and Public Affairs, Shanghai International Studies University Shanghai, 200083. 
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中文摘要:
      进入21世纪以来,新型冠状病毒、埃博拉、重症急性呼吸综合征以及甲流感等新发和复发传染病危机对全球卫生安全构成严重威胁,因此,如何促进全球卫生安全治理是当今国际社会亟待解决的问题。尽管美国曾经在全球卫生安全治理中发挥了重要作用,但尚未形成清晰的全球卫生安全治理政策。美国于2019年5月首次发布《全球卫生安全战略》,标志着特朗普政府全球卫生安全政策正式出台。该《全球卫生安全战略》以应对传染病威胁为核心,呈现出了以国家安全为导向和“全政府”路径的特点,充分体现了特朗普政府的“负担分担”“美国优先”和反多边主义的思维。在全球卫生安全领域,各国已成为“因病相依”的全球命运共同体。有效的全球卫生安全治理需要全球多边主义,特朗普政府以国家安全为导向和以“美国优先”为原则的《全球卫生安全战略》与全球卫生安全的实现之间存在张力。特朗普政府的上述思维不仅侵蚀了全球卫生安全体系建构所必需的国际政治合作基础,也恶化了全球卫生安全的融资体系,因此对全球卫生安全体系构成了挑战。
英文摘要:
      The 21st century has witnessed an array of serious threats to global health security posed by such emerging and reemerging infectious diseases as COVID-19, Ebola, SARS and H1N1, which makes it an urgent task for the international community to improve global health governance. The Trump administration failed to formulate a specific global health security policy in its early days, although the United States has played an important role in global health security governance. Global Health Security Strategy, first released by the Trump administration in May 2019, was the formal announcement of its global health security policy. Focusing on addressing infectious disease threats, the Strategy adopts a national security-oriented and whole-of-government approach and fully reflects the core tenets of President Trump’s foreign policy doctrine: “burden-sharing”, “America First” and anti-multilateralism. Due to shared vulnerabilities in global health security, all countries have been tied together. Effective global health security governance calls for global multilateralism. Therefore, the national security-oriented Global Health Security Strategy characterized by “America First” policy is not compatible with the realization of global health security. The aforementioned mindset of the Trump administration not only undermines the foundation of international political cooperation necessary for building an effective global health security system, but also exacerbates the financing system of global health security, thus inevitably posing a challenge to the global health security system.
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