文章摘要
刘长敏,宋明晶.美国生物防御政策与国家安全[J].国际安全研究,2020,(3):96-126
美国生物防御政策与国家安全
US Biodefense Policy and National Security
  修订日期:2020-03-17
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2020.03.005
中文关键词: 生物防御政策;生物恐怖主义;生物武器;国家安全;生物安全
英文关键词: biodefense policy, bioterrorism, biological weapons, national security, biosecurity
基金项目:
作者单位
刘长敏 LIU Changmin, Professor and Doctoral Supervisor, Department of International Relations, School of Political Science and Public Administration, China University of Political Science and Law
SONG Mingjing, Ph.D. Student, Department of International Relations, School of Political Science and Public Administration, China University of Political Science and Law Beijing, 100088. 
宋明晶 LIU Changmin, Professor and Doctoral Supervisor, Department of International Relations, School of Political Science and Public Administration, China University of Political Science and Law
SONG Mingjing, Ph.D. Student, Department of International Relations, School of Political Science and Public Administration, China University of Political Science and Law Beijing, 100088. 
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中文摘要:
      生物防御政策是美国政府旨在应对生物威胁、降低生物风险以及为生物事故事先准备、响应及恢复的行动纲要。自21世纪初以来,美国历届总统皆格外注重生物防御政策的制定和完善,从小布什到特朗普,一共颁布了六部相关法案,发布了七份国家战略报告,签发了五项行政命令,通过拨付巨额经费,设置若干专门机构,整合各种资源,加强国际合作等方式,不断提升生物防御和生物安全在国家安全战略中的地位,旨在为美国构筑一道双向度、立体化、全谱系的“生物安全屏障”。究其原因,主要是为了应对恐怖组织不断寻求生物武器给美国带来的威胁,敌对国家不断掌握和研制生物武器产生的持续性压力以及国际社会的相关立法约束乏力。美国生物防御政策对全球生物安全具有双重影响:一方面,通过与其他国家、相关国际组织展开交流与对话,为其提供生物安全援助等方式推动该领域的国际合作;另一方面,自身庞大的生物防御项目、巨额的经费投入、本国安全利益“唯上”的思维又使全球生物安全形势面临恶化的风险。
英文摘要:
      The US biodefense policy is the government’s platform for action aimed at countering biological threats, mitigating biological risks, and preparing in advance for, responding to, and recovering from biological incidents. Since the beginning of the 21st century, successive presidents have paid particular attention to the formulation and improvement of the US biodefense policies. From President George W. Bush to President Donald Trump, six relevant bills, seven national strategy reports and five executive orders have been issued. The US government seeks to elevate biodefense and biosecurity as a critical imperative in its national security strategy by building a bidirectional, solid, and systematic “biosecurity shield” framework via substantial funds, specialized agencies, integrated resources management and enhanced international cooperation. All these moves aim to successfully address the challenge posed by terrorist organizations’ constant efforts to seek biological weapons, proactively respond to the persistent pressure generated by hostile countries’ possession and development of biological weapons and efficiently tackle the weak binding regulations of the international community. The US biodefense policy has a dual impact on global biosecurity. On the one hand, it will promote international cooperation by conducting exchanges and dialogues with other countries or relevant international organizations as well as providing biosecurity assistance to them. On the other hand, subject to massive biodefense projects, enormous input in terms of funds and the “domestic security interests always go first” thinking, it may incur risks and thus jeopardize the global biosecurity situation.
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