文章摘要
王思丹.生物多样性议题安全建构的碎片化[J].国际安全研究,2020,(3):127-156
生物多样性议题安全建构的碎片化
Fragmentation in Security Construction of Biodiversity Issues
  修订日期:2020-03-03
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2020.03.006
中文关键词: 生物多样性;安全化;安全建构;生态安全;环境安全;安全治理
英文关键词: biodiversity, securitization, security construction, ecological security, environmental security, security governance
基金项目:
作者单位
王思丹 WANG Sidan, Lecturer, Institute of International Relations, China Foreign Affairs University Beijing, 100037. 
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中文摘要:
      1992年,《生物多样性公约》与《联合国气候变化框架公约》《联合国防治荒漠化公约》一并成为全球环境治理与合作的重要制度性框架文件。目前,生物多样性的国际合作程度、社会认知深度、治理行动速度等都明显逊色。生物多样性治理的迫切程度不亚于其他的全球性环境议题,但其议题安全化的分散性却不利于建构整体性的安全认知。生物多样性议题安全建构的碎片化体现在生态、治理目标、谈判、国家及其他行为体四个层面。生态层面是指生物多样性的安全认知;治理目标层面是指全球生物多样性治理的“爱知目标”与安全的联系;谈判层面包括资金机制、资源动员、遗传资源获取和惠益分享、保护区以及主流化等议题;各缔约方及其他行为体层面不仅在各项议题上表达各自关切,同时也将生物多样性问题建构为粮食安全、水安全、公共卫生安全、经济安全等多元安全关注。生物多样性议题安全建构的碎片化导致了该问题虽然在话语上进入了安全领域,但是缺乏共同的安全认知,难以提供简明和清晰的治理目标和路径,不利于推动全球有效治理。
英文摘要:
      The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) have been the significant institutional frameworks for global environmental governance and cooperation since 1992. Biodiversity issues deserve more attention from the international community in terms of international cooperation, social recognition and progress in actions and governance. While biodiversity governance is no less urgent than other global environmental issues, its fragmented securitization is not conducive to the construction of a holistic security awareness. The fragmentation in security construction of biodiversity issues presents itself at four levels: ecological conservation, objectives of governance, international negotiations, states and other actors. As far as the ecological conservation is concerned, it is important to raise people’s security awareness about biodiversity. The objectives of governance focus on the links between the “Aichi Targets” and security. The international negotiations cover such issues as financial mechanisms, resource mobilization, access and benefit-sharing (ABS) to and of genetic resources, protected areas (PAs) and the mainstreaming of the issue. Contracting parties and other actors have not only raised their own concerns about different topics but also integrated the construction of biodiversity security into multiple security concerns such as food, water, public health and economic security. However, although the biodiversity issue has been incorporated into security discourse, its fragmented security construction fails to promote effective global governance due to a lack of common awareness of biodiversity security as well as concise and clear-cut governance objectives and paths.
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