文章摘要
冯怡然.超国家主义与政府间主义融合:欧盟新防务建设举措及前景[J].国际安全研究,2020,(5):81-110
超国家主义与政府间主义融合:欧盟新防务建设举措及前景
The Synthesis of Supranationalism and Intergovernmentalism: Initiatives and Prospects of EU’s New Defense Cooperation Arrangements
  修订日期:2020-06-30
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2020.05.004
中文关键词: 欧洲安全;自主防务;超国家主义;政府间主义;欧洲防务基金;永久结构性合作
英文关键词: European security, autonomous defense, supranationalism, intergovernmentalism, European Defense Fund, Permanent Structured Cooperation
基金项目:
作者单位
冯怡然 FENG Yiran, Ph. D. Student, School of International Studies, Renmin University of China Beijing, 100872. 
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中文摘要:
      二战结束以来的欧洲一体化建设贯穿着超国家主义和政府间主义的博弈,而将超国家主义引入防务这一高政治领域一直是一体化进程的禁忌。然而,2016年以来,欧盟自主防务合作中出现了引人注目的超国家主义成分。这与欧洲面临的日益严峻的安全形势,以及在此背景下形成的新安全观有着重要的关系。欧洲面临的新的重大安全挑战呈现出非传统安全威胁与传统安全威胁共振、内部安全挑战与外部安全挑战交织的特征。同时,欧洲与其传统军事盟友美国的利益分化增大。在这些因素的综合作用下,欧盟成员国产生了加强自主防务合作的强烈意愿。欧洲防务基金的成立、“永久结构性合作”等举措的出台和实施,均体现了超国家主义与政府间主义两种合作方式的结合,这也成为近年来欧洲一体化的一大突破。未来,欧盟防务合作还难以摆脱决策机制、资金以及与北约的关系等因素的制约。但作为欧洲一体化两大“发动机”的法国和德国,将会从实现战略自主的高度继续推动欧盟框架内的防务合作,而欧盟委员会的“卷入”以及英国“脱欧”也将有利于欧盟防务建设的不断发展,欧盟在欧洲安全力量结构中的地位将愈益重要。
英文摘要:
      Tensions between supranationalism and intergovernmentalism have been running through the construction of European integration since the end of World War II. It remains a taboo subject in the integration process to introduce supranationalism into high-politics fields, such as defense and security. However, since 2016, supranational elements have been witnessed in the efforts of EU’s defense cooperation arrangements. This change has a considerable bearing on the increasingly grave security situation facing Europe in recent years and the newly formed security concept under this context. The new severe security situation is characterized by not only interwoven traditional and non-traditional threats but also intertwined internal and external security challenges. Meanwhile, the divergence of interests between Europe and its long-standing ally, the United States, has become increasingly salient. These circumstances have generated a strong desire among the EU member states to reinforce defense and security cooperation. The synthesis of supranationalism and intergovernmentalism can be seen in the establishment of European Defense Fund (EDF) as well as the formulation and implementation of initiatives like “Permanent Structured Cooperation” (PESCO), which signifies a major breakthrough in European integration over the past years. In the near future, EU’s defense cooperation will be continually constrained by its decision-making mechanism, lack of fund and its relations with NATO. However, France and Germany, the ‘twin engine’ of European integration, will continue to strengthen defense cooperation within the EU framework in the hope of achieving European strategic autonomy. The European Commission’s “involvement” in the security and defense issue as well as the UK’s “Brexit” will be conducive to boosting the EU’s defense capacity and enhancing EU’s position in the security structure of Europe.
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