文章摘要
祁怀高.构建南海非传统安全多边合作整体架构研究[J].国际安全研究,2020,(6):127-152
构建南海非传统安全多边合作整体架构研究
On Regime Integration of Multilateral Non-traditional Security Cooperation in the South China Sea
  修订日期:2020-08-11
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2020.06.006
中文关键词: 南海;非传统安全合作;中国;东盟声索国;域外大国;机制融合
英文关键词: South China Sea, non-traditional security cooperation, China, ASEAN claimants, outside powers, regime integration
基金项目:
作者单位
祁怀高 复旦大学国际问题研究院 上海 200433 
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中文摘要:
      近年来,南海非传统安全多边合作机制呈现“碎片化”特征,数量众多、不成体系、互不连属,造成了机制拥堵和功能重叠。南海多边合作机制“碎片化”和未形成多边合作整体架构的重要原因在于,中国、东盟声索国和域外大国这三类行为体各自牵头的机制多元共存,并对“谁的多边安全”“什么样的多边安全”“如何建立多边安全”这三个问题作出了各自的回答。构建南海非传统安全多边合作的整体架构,可将正在谈判中的“南海行为准则”作为“机制融合”的核心;同时,将《联合国海洋法公约》中的一些原则、“南海沿岸国合作机制”倡议融合到“南海行为准则”制定中;需要从高度紧迫且三类行为体尤其是中美都愿意合作的非传统安全威胁领域着手,并从已有的南海及其毗连海域非传统安全多边合作案例中获取经验。构建南海非传统安全多边合作的整体架构,相关国家应坚持四条基本原则:南海沿岸国寻求与域外大国的良性互动;打击跨国海盗和恐怖主义须作为优先选项;将提升海上能力建设作为重点;推进海洋环保和渔业资源管理的多边合作。
英文摘要:
      The fragmented regimes for non-traditional security cooperation in the South China Sea are beset with disintegration and overlapping functionality. The key reason for regime “fragmentation” or lack of integration in the SCS goes like this: Three actors, namely China, ASEAN claimants and outside powers, have initiated different regimes for non-traditional security cooperation in the SCS on their own and provided disparate answers to the following three critical questions, “Whose multilateral security?”, “What kind of multilateral security?”, and “How to establish multilateral security?”. The Code of Conduct (COC) in the South China Sea currently being negotiated could be used as the core of the “integration regime” while constructing an integrated framework for multilateral non-traditional security cooperation in the SCS. At the same time, some fundamental principles of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the SCS littoral states cooperation mechanism can be incorporated into the formulation of the COC. In short, multilateral security cooperation in the SCS can be achieved successfully only if all the three actors (especially China and the United States) collectively place a high premium on the looming threat in the non-traditional security domain and are willing to cooperate in fighting this threat. Moreover, a number of important lessons can be drawn from the cooperation cases on multilateral non-traditional security in the SCS and its adjacent waters. Four rules are recommended to be abided by to facilitate multilateral non-traditional security cooperation in the SCS: the SCS littoral states pursue constructive interactions with the outside powers, put at the top of their agenda combating transnational piracy and terrorism, lay emphasis on enhancing their maritime capacity-building as well as promote multilateral cooperation in marine environmental protection and fishery resources management.
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