文章摘要
屠酥.澜湄水资源安全与合作:流域发展导向的分析视角[J].国际安全研究,2021,(1):63-89
澜湄水资源安全与合作:流域发展导向的分析视角
Lancang-Mekong Water Resources Security and Water Cooperation: From a Development-oriented Perspective
  
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2021.01.003
中文关键词: 澜湄合作;澜湄水资源合作;跨境水资源;水安全;发展与安全
英文关键词: Lancang-Mekong cooperation, Lancang-Mekong water resources cooperation, transboundary water resources, water security, development and security
基金项目:本文是国家重点研发计划资助项目“跨境水资源科学调控与利益共享研究”(项目编号:2016YFA0601600)子项目“跨境流域水资源利益共享及权益保障机制”(项目编号:2016YFA0601604)的阶段性研究成果。感谢《国际安全研究》匿名评审专家对本文提出的宝贵修改意见,文中的错漏概由作者负责。
作者单位
屠酥 Associate Research Fellow, Collaborative Innovation Center for Territorial Sovereignty and Maritime Rights (CICTSMR), Wuhan University (Wuhan, 430072). 
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中文摘要:
      进入21世纪,澜湄流域的人口增长、经济快速发展和城镇化,增加了各国用水需求,而各国对水资源的非协调性开发以及气候变化影响下的极端天气频发,导致水安全问题凸显,流域可持续发展面临压力。当前,澜湄流域水安全处于中等脆弱状态,但已建、在建和计划建设项目的累积影响将进一步加剧水资源脆弱性。为保障水安全,湄公河国家迫切期望加强彼此之间及与上游的中国在水资源问题上的磋商、协调和合作,其共同水安全需求从低到高可分为四个层次:防洪安全、供水安全、生态安全及水—粮食—能源协同安全。这四种安全需求是同时存在的,但在流域国家社会经济发展所处的不同阶段,亦有不同侧重。澜湄水安全合作既要满足流域各国水安全需求,又不能脱离流域的整体发展,因此应正确把握安全与发展的辩证关系,分阶段、有步骤地推进和深化:尽早建立风险防控协调机制,开展流域国家联合勘察和应对气候变化协同研究;2030年左右建立供水安全和生态安全合作机制;到21世纪中叶开展全流域水资源综合管理,实现水—粮食—能源协同安全。
英文摘要:
      Since the beginning of the 21st century, water and related resources in Lancang-Mekong basin have been subject to mounting pressure due to the population growth, rapid economic development and urbanization. The uncoordinated development of Mekong water resources by the riparian countries and the frequent occurrence of extreme weather events brought about by climate change have caused devastating impacts on the Lancang-Mekong basin facing increased risks to water security. Currently, water security of this region is witnessing a medium-level vulnerability that will be further exacerbated by the cumulative environmental effects caused by the completed and ongoing projects as well as the possible upcoming ones. In order to safeguard water security, all the Mekong river countries have expressed their hope for greater consultation, coordination and cooperation on water resources issues among themselves and with China, the most upstream country of the Mekong river. From the highest to lowest ranking, their water security needs are: flood control, water supply, ecological security and water-food-energy security. While the four basic security needs coexisting with each other, they occupy the dominant status at different stages of the social and economic development of these countries. Given that the Lancang-Mekong water security cooperation should meet different needs for water security while taking into consideration different stages of development of these countries, it is advisable that the dialectical relationship between security and development be correctly handled. In this regard, the following work should be carried out in a step by step mode: establishing the coordination mechanism for risk prevention and control at an early time and conducting joint surveys of the Basin and collaborative research on climate change; completing the cooperation mechanism for water supply and ecological security by 2030 as well as implementing the comprehensive management of water resources in the whole Basin and realizing water-food-energy security in the middle of the 21st century.
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