文章摘要
石斌.思想.制度.工具[J].国际安全研究,2021,(2):3-27
思想.制度.工具
Ideas, Institutions and Instruments#$NL—An Analysis Framework of the US National Security System
  修订日期:2021-01-18
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2021.02.001
中文关键词: 美国;国家安全体系;指导思想;法律制度;保障工具;国家安全学
英文关键词: the United States, national security system, guiding ideas, legal system, safeguard instruments, national security studies
基金项目:
作者单位
石斌 SHI Bin, Professor, Hopkins-Nanjing Center for Chinese and American Studies and School of Government, Nanjing University Nanjing, 210093. 
摘要点击次数: 92
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中文摘要:
      各国国家安全体系建设的相关经验,可以为总体国家安全观指导下的中国国家安全体系建设提供参考和借鉴。国家安全体系一般都有一些必不可少的基本构成要素,但由于各国历史文化、内外环境和发展需求等方面的差异,这些要素的演变历程、具体内容和实际作用可能大不相同。作为超级大国,美国拥有最为庞大、完备且富于自身特色的国家安全体系。这个体系主要由指导思想、法律制度和保障工具三类要素构成。其指导思想是维护全球性主导地位,并带有绝对安全倾向;决策机制既遵循一套完整的跨部门分级流程,也涉及各种非正式决策模式;法律制度与监管机制系统完备;保障工具与手段多样有力,包括超强的军事能力与联盟体系、强大的经济实力与情报体系以及广泛的社会基础。然而,作为一个在冷战中形成的“安全化国家”,美国的安全目标与手段、资源之间存在持续张力;空前庞大的国家安全体系也会受到内外条件的制约,经常陷入能力捉襟见肘、行为进退失据的境地;尽管在国际体系中拥有显著的“权力优势”,美国同样面临发展利益与安全利益之间的矛盾。
英文摘要:
      Different countries’ experiences in constructing the national security system can provide reference for China’s efforts to construct its own national security system under the guidance of the “overall security concept”. Although national security systems share some basic elements, their evolutionary processes, specific elements and practical functions may vary greatly due to the historical and cultural differences, diversified internal and external environment as well as the development needs of different countries. As a superpower, the United States boasts the most comprehensive and colossal national security system which is consistent with its specific needs. This unique system is mainly composed of three categories of elements, namely guiding ideas, legal system and safeguard instruments. The ultimate goal of its guiding ideas is to maintain global dominance and build absolute security. Its decision-making mechanism not only follows a set of cross-departmental and hierarchical processes, but also involves various informal decision-making patterns. The legal system and regulatory mechanism are sound and well-established as well. The safeguard instruments and means are featured by diversity and effectiveness which includes unrivalled military capabilities and alliance networks, superb economic strength and information gathering and processing systems as well as a more extensive social foundation. However, as a “securitized state” that took shape during the Cold War, tensions still persist between its security objectives and the available means and resources. The maintenance and effective operation of the unprecedentedly all-encompassing national security system tends to be subject to internal and external conditions and is caught on the horns of a dilemma. Although the United States enjoys notable “power advantage” in the international system, it also faces an apparent contradiction between its development interests and security interests.
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