文章摘要
曾向红,陈科睿.九一一事件以来美国反恐过程中的主导性隐喻及其后果[J].国际安全研究,2021,(4):3-31
九一一事件以来美国反恐过程中的主导性隐喻及其后果
A Study on Dominant Metaphors and Their Consequences in Counter-terrorism Governance: Reflections on the US Anti-terrorism Discourse since the September 11 Attacks
  修订日期:2021-05-05
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2021.04.001
中文关键词: 恐怖主义治理;隐喻;隐喻陷阱;九一一事件;反恐战争
英文关键词: terrorism governance, metaphor, metaphorical trap, September 11 attack, war on terror
基金项目:
作者单位
曾向红 兰州大学中亚研究所、兰州大学政治与国际关系学院 兰州 730000 
陈科睿 兰州大学中亚研究所、兰州大学政治与国际关系学院 兰州 730000 
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中文摘要:
      九一一事件后,国际反恐行动似乎已陷入“越反越恐”的怪圈,这与人们对恐怖主义的“越描越恐”密切相关,而隐喻的存在及广泛使用是导致“越描越恐”的重要原因。在恐怖主义的治理中,作为必不可少的思维方式,涉恐隐喻具有启发性,但也因其随意性、凸显与隐藏的特征,限制了人们关于恐怖主义的思想和行为。在美国涉恐的政治、媒体和学术话语中,“恐怖主义是战争”“恐怖主义是野蛮的东西”“恐怖主义是疾病”和“恐怖主义是不受欢迎的植物”是占主导地位的隐喻。这些隐喻深植于历史、人们的恐惧、社会系统和舆论中,很大程度上代表了人们对恐怖主义的正统看法。进行隐喻分析,使用多种隐喻,一定程度上能缓解隐喻陷阱,但仍不能消除它。因此,在恐怖主义治理的过程中,坚持“犯罪”隐喻为主导、灵活使用多种措施、重建受损的政治秩序、减少对无辜平民的伤害和对穆斯林的歧视尤为重要。
英文摘要:
      After the September 11 incident, international anti-terrorism efforts seem to have been stuck in a vicious circle of “the more you fight terrorism, the more they thrive.” This phenomenon is closely related to people’s mentality of “the more you talk about terrorism, the more terrifying it seems to be,” which could be attributed to the existence and widespread use of metaphors. In counter-terrorism governance, terrorism-related metaphors, as an essential way of thinking, can be enlightening, but it may also limit people’s thoughts and behaviors in regard to terrorism owing to its randomness and highlighted (as well as hidden) features. When it comes to terrorism-related politics, media and academic discourses in the United States, dominant metaphors are “the fight against terrorism is a war,” “terrorism is something barbaric,” “terrorism is a disease,” and “terrorism is an undesirable plant.” These metaphors are deeply rooted in historical practices, people’s fears, social systems and public opinions, and to a large extent represent people’s orthodox views on terrorism. Although the metaphorical analysis and the use of multiple metaphors cannot eliminate the metaphorical trap, they can at least help alleviate it to a certain extent. Therefore, in the process of counter-terrorism governance, it is of paramount importance to adhere to a stance with the dominant metaphorical expressions of “terrorism is a crime,” flexibly employ various measures, rebuild the damaged political order, and reduce harms to innocent civilians and discriminations against Muslims.
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