文章摘要
沈晓晨.当代西方恐怖主义威胁认知与治理目标和路径[J].国际安全研究,2021,(4):32-56
当代西方恐怖主义威胁认知与治理目标和路径
Threat Perceptions, Objectives and Paths of Counter-terrorism Governance in Contemporary Western Countries
  修订日期:2021-05-17
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2021.04.002
中文关键词: 恐怖主义治理;威胁认知;反激进化;反极端化;本土恐怖主义
英文关键词: counter-terrorism governance, threat perceptions, policy evaluation, counter-radicalization, de-extremalization, homegrown terrorism
基金项目:
作者单位
沈晓晨 中国—上海合作组织国际司法交流合作培训基地 上海 201701 
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中文摘要:
      恐怖主义威胁认知对治理政策的有效性具有决定性的影响,也是外部政策评估的有效切入点:威胁认知通过影响政策目标与政策路径,构成恐怖主义治理能够在多大限度内发挥其有效性的前提。九一一事件以来,西方对恐怖主义威胁出现了“传统智慧”“本土恐怖主义”和“极端意识形态”三种不同的认知,治理政策经历了“全球反恐战争”“反激进化”和“反极端化”三个阶段,政策目标经历了“文化安全化—族群安全化—思想安全化”的演进,政策路径出现了从“群体化”到“个体与群体兼重”再到“个体化”的转变。恐怖主义威胁认知的三个阶段演进,更多的是面对新恐怖威胁的被动更新,而非针对前一阶段问题所做的主动修正。这导致当代西方恐怖主义治理的既有政策有限性将会持续,反恐的政策负担会越来越重,甚至“越反越恐”。在当前国际恐怖主义不断发展变化的背景下,西方乃至全球的恐怖主义治理又处于一个需要更新威胁认知的关头,这可能会进一步影响当前恐怖主义治理的效果。
英文摘要:
      Perceptions of terrorism threat can exert decisive influences on the effectiveness of governance-related policies and serve as an effective entry point for external policy evaluation. Threat perceptions, by virtue of influencing policy objectives and pathways, constitute a prerequisite for how much counter-terrorism governance could bring into full play its effectiveness. Ever since the September 11 attacks, three perceptions of terrorism threat have taken shape in the Western world that include “conventional wisdom,” “homegrown terrorism,” and “extremist ideology.” Accordingly, governance-related policies have undergone such three phases as “global war on terror,” “counter-radicalization,” and “de-extremalization.” Policy objectives have evolved from “cultural securitization” and “community securitization” to “ideological securitization,” while policy paths have witnessed the transformation from “collectivization” and “putting equal weight on collectivization and individualization” to “individualization.” The three-phased evolution of terrorism threat perceptions is more a passive reaction to new terrorist threats than an active response to problems in previous phases. Consequently, limitations inherent to the existing policies concerning contemporary Western counter-terrorism governance will persist in some form and hence the counter-terrorism burden will become increasingly heavier, which may even give rise to a dilemma in which “the more you fight terrorism, the worse the situation gets.” Against the backdrop of the continuous change and development of international terrorism, counter-terrorism governance in Western countries and across the world has reached a crucial juncture when perceptions of terrorism threat need to be upgraded, which may further exert a profound impact on the effectiveness of current counter-terrorism governance.
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