文章摘要
李开盛.基于义务的合作:角色理论与中美东亚安全互动[J].国际安全研究,2021,(4):57-79
基于义务的合作:角色理论与中美东亚安全互动
Obligation-based Cooperation: Role Theory and Sino-US Security Interactions in East Asia
  修订日期:2021-04-25
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2021.04.003
中文关键词: 中美关系;角色理论;安全合作;朝鲜半岛核问题;南沙岛礁主权争端
英文关键词: Sino-US relations, role theory, security cooperation, Korean Peninsula nuclear issue, the South China Sea disputes
基金项目:
作者单位
李开盛 上海社会科学院国际问题研究所 上海 200020 
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中文摘要:
      共同利益常被视为国际安全合作的重要基础,但鉴于中美之间的利益冲突众多,有必要把强调义务而非利益的、基于角色的合作模式作为补充的合作路径。在国际安全关系中,相关国家所应承担的角色及义务有其客观性,基于角色的合作能够为相关议题以及行为体间的合作提供一个相对客观、中性的规范指南与解决方案。朝鲜半岛核问题、南沙岛礁主权争端是东亚安全的两大挑战,中美在这两大问题上的角色互补,是两国基于角色推进良性安全互动的切入点。但出于维护地区霸权的利益考虑以及地区制约机制的缺乏,美国在这两个问题上的角色错位和义务失范趋势越来越明显:美国在朝核问题上逃避自己当事方的责任,本是南沙岛礁主权争端问题的第三方却试图选边站,使得东亚安全局势更加复杂,中美冲突的可能性增加。为此,有必要彰显规则意识,强调相关国家特别是美国在东亚安全议题上的角色义务,最终促使美国角色回归并与中国开展良性安全互动。
英文摘要:
      Common interests are generally recognized as the foundation for international security cooperation. However, given a multitude of conflicts of interests in Sino-US relations, it is imperative that the role-based cooperation model that emphasizes obligations rather than interests serve as a complementary path for achieving security cooperation. In terms of international security relations, the roles and obligations of relevant countries are featured by “objectivity,” thus making it possible for the role-based cooperation to provide relatively objective and neutral guidelines and solutions for relevant issues as well as for cooperation among actors. Considering that the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula and the South China Sea disputes remain two major challenges to East Asian security, the complementary roles assumed by China and the United States over the two issues could serve as an entry point for them to facilitate positive security interactions. However, for the sake of safeguarding its regional hegemonic interests and for the lack of regional restraint mechanism, the United States has shown a strong tendency of role dislocation and obligation anomie as regards the two issues. The United States, as a direct party on the Korean Peninsula nuclear issue, evades its responsibilities. At the same time, it attempts to take sides as a third party on the South China Sea disputes, making the security situation in East Asia more complicated with increased possibility of conflicts between China and the US. In order to promote the correct positioning of its roles and carry out positive security interactions with China, the United States should heighten its awareness of rules and highlight its roles and obligations on security issues in East Asia.
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