文章摘要
孟维瞻.古代中原王朝统一与崛起时期的联盟安全经验与启示[J].国际安全研究,2022,(6):34-60
古代中原王朝统一与崛起时期的联盟安全经验与启示
Alliance Management in the Unification and Rising Periods of China’s Ancient History: Experiences and Inspirations
投稿时间:2022-03-02  修订日期:2022-07-20
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2022.06.002
中文关键词: 古代中原王朝  联盟  国家安全  朝贡体系  中国崛起  唐朝
英文关键词: ancient China, alliance, national security, tributary system, China’s rise, Tang Dynasty
基金项目:
作者单位
孟维瞻 复旦大学社会科学高等研究院 上海 200433 
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中文摘要:
      古代中国是多元一体的国家,中原王朝的每次完全统一和成功崛起往往是基于对联盟体系的有效管理。中国疆域之内的部族、疆域之外的政权或行为体,均可能成为中原王朝每次崛起的强大阻力和安全威胁。为确立在东亚体系中的主导权以及建立稳定而持久的朝贡体系,朝廷选择联合一部分盟友,为其提供安全保障,并且与之合作击败那些威胁中原的游牧部落或其他行为体。羁縻关系和宗属关系的重要作用之一是中原与边疆政权之间在安全上的相互支持。与今天美国的基于价值观一元化的联盟体系不同,古代中原王朝的联盟政策是基于对道义原则的遵守,包括守信、慎战、强恕。它一方面恪守对盟友的安全保护承诺,另一方面对破坏区域和平的政权尽量不采用武力方式解决问题,而是怀柔远人、弘扬道义,公平公正地调节周边政权之间的矛盾。在上述手段无法奏效的情况下,朝廷会选择联合盟友消灭主要敌人。唐朝是中国古代最强盛的王朝之一,建立了最为成功的联盟体系,具体表现为它与北方草原和朝鲜半岛各行为体之间确立了羁縻关系或宗属关系,保证了边疆的稳定和安全。类似地,其他几个主要王朝在崛起时期,也是通过联盟保证政权安全和实现统一,进而提升在体系中的地位,这大体上是一个贯穿于中国古代历史多数时期的规律。相对于研究美国的联盟体系,研究中国古代中原王朝对联盟体系的管理经验,对于今天中国的国家安全同样具有启示和借鉴意义。
英文摘要:
      The glorious rise of a dynasty in China’s history could often be attributed to its effective alliance management. Historically, the nomadic tribes in northwest China frequently constituted a hindrance and security threat to the rise of Chinese ancient dynasties. In order to secure their dominance in the East Asian international system and establish a stable and lasting tributary system, Chinese ancient dynasties tended to choose to unite some of the tribes in their efforts to defeat those that were considered a threat to them. The essence of the Jimi system (羁縻制) and tributary system lies in mutual security support between the Middle Kingdom and nomadic tribes. Different from today’s alliance system of the United States that is based on the assimilation of values, the alliance systems established by the unified dynasties in ancient China were based on the observance of moral principles and ethical codes, which include keeping promises, being prudent in waging wars and putting oneself in others’ shoes. On the one hand, Chinese ancient dynasties tended to abide by the security commitment given to their neighboring allies. On the other hand, they tried not to use force to resolve problems with those who had undermined regional peace, but to reconcile conflicts of interests and find a long-term agreement on how to coexist with their neighbors in the region. When those options failed, they chose to unite their allies to destroy the main enemies. The Tang Dynasty, one of the most powerful dynasties in ancient China, forged the most successful alliance system in China’s history by establishing the Jimi system with various actors in Inner Asia and on the Korean Peninsula to ensure stability and security of its frontiers. Similarly, the Han Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty all achieved political security and unity through alliance management, and then promoted their status in the international system, which is a rule that applies to almost every period of Chinese history. Studying the management experiences of Chinese ancient dynasties on their alliance systems will be of great enlightenment on and reference significance to China’s national security today.
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