文章摘要
鹿音.美国“不首先使用核武器”政策建议:缘起与演进[J].国际安全研究,2022,(6):86-112
美国“不首先使用核武器”政策建议:缘起与演进
Policy Recommendations for the US Government Regarding the “No-First-Use” of Nuclear Weapons: Origin and Evolution
  修订日期:2022-06-14
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2022.06.004
中文关键词: 美国核政策  不首先使用核武器  政策建议  主要阻力
英文关键词: US nuclear policy, “no first use”, nuclear weapons, policy proposal, major resistance factors
基金项目:
作者单位
鹿音 国防大学国家安全学院 北京 100091 
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中文摘要:
      “不首先使用核武器”政策是指有核国将核武器的作用严格限定在核威慑上,公开宣布放弃首先使用核武器,核武器仅用作核报复(核反击)。从冷战开始至今,美国国内一直在从理论上探讨“不首先使用核武器”问题。支持者与反对者从现实主义、自由主义和建构主义的角度提出各自的理由。美国政府内部也一直都有采取“不首先使用核武器”政策的建议,但美国却始终未能正式采纳并宣布这一政策。阻碍美国政府采纳这一政策建议的因素长期存在,包括思维方式的桎梏、政治工具的局限性、核作战战略准备的内在矛盾和盟国持续施加的压力等。鉴于目前的安全环境,在可预见的未来,美国都不大可能正式宣布采取“不首先使用核武器”政策。尽管如此,由于“不首先使用核武器”政策表达出大国避免核战争、保持战略稳定的意愿,同时有利于回应广大无核国的安全诉求,避免误判和危机,增进战略互信,维持全球和平与战略稳定,维护人类社会共同福祉,该政策建议仍会继续影响美国政府在相关领域的决策进程。
英文摘要:
      The policy of “no-first-use” of nuclear weapons means that a nuclear-weapon state should strictly limit the role of its nuclear weapons in nuclear deterrence, publicly renounce the first use of nuclear weapons, and use nuclear weapons only for nuclear retaliation (nuclear counterattack). From the Cold War to the present day, the United States has been making theoretical explorations on the issue of “no-first-use” of nuclear weapons. Both proponents and opponents have made their case from perspectives of realism, liberalism and constructivism. There have also been recommendations within the US government regarding the adoption of no-first-use policy, but the US has not formally declared that it would never use nuclear weapons first. Factors that hinder the US government from adopting such a policy include the shackles of the mindset, limitations of political tools, inherent contradictions in strategic preparedness for nuclear warfare, and constant pressure from its allies. Given the current security environment, it is unlikely that the United States will officially declare the adoption of a “no-first-use” policy in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, the “no-first-use” policy recommendations will continue to affect the decision-making process of the US government because of the willingness of major powers to avoid nuclear warfare and maintain strategic stability. The recommendations have also expressed security concerns of non-nuclear-weapon countries over possible nuclear miscalculations and crises. The adoption of “no-first-use” policy will absolutely help enhance strategic mutual trust, preserve global peace and strategic stability, and safeguard the common well-being of human society.
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