文章摘要
丁迪.超越生物防御:“两用性”安全叙事与美国生物技术政策的演进[J].国际安全研究,2022,(6):113-150
超越生物防御:“两用性”安全叙事与美国生物技术政策的演进
Beyond Biodefense: “Dual-Use” Security Narrative and Evolution of US Biotechnology Policies
投稿时间:2022-05-30  修订日期:2022-08-10
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2022.06.005
中文关键词: 生物安全  安全叙事  美国霸权  两用性  生物技术
英文关键词: biosecurity, security narratives, US hegemony, dual use, biotechnology
基金项目:
作者单位
丁迪 同济大学中国战略研究院 上海 200092 
摘要点击次数: 59
全文下载次数: 13
中文摘要:
      生物技术对人类社会的进步既有巨大推动作用,也有巨大的潜在风险,这种现象被称为生物技术的“两用性”。自九一一事件后,美国政府开始对生物技术“两用性”概念进行话语操弄,形成了一套独特的安全叙事,也推动了美国生物技术政策的演变。从小布什政府到拜登政府,在“两用性”安全叙事下的生物技术具有了多重的安全效应,并逐渐形成了生物技术政策领域防御性与竞争性的两种目标。从理论逻辑上看,此种防御性目标与竞争性目标之间存在着明显的矛盾,这揭示了在当前大国竞争的背景下,美国霸权逻辑已经开始侵蚀正常的决策理性。从实践上看,为了维护霸权,美国的生物技术政策已经逐步超越其生物防御战略,企图采取科研“脱钩”和加强军事化投资的方式来打压竞争对手,以此维持美国的生物技术领导地位。新兴生物技术的发展功在全球化、利在全人类。美国霸权逻辑下的政策行为是违背科研发展规律的,必将遭到客观现实的严厉“回击”,这对美国自身的生物技术发展和全球的生物安全都将带来严重的负面影响。
英文摘要:
      Biotechnology has been both a tremendous catalyst and a potential risk for the advancement of human society due to its “dual-use” nature. Ever since 9/11 terrorist attacks, the US government has been working on its discourse manipulation of the “dual-use” concept in the field of biotechnology, which not only contributed to the final formation of a unique security narrative, but also accelerated the evolution of US biotechnology policies. From the Bush administration to the Biden administration, biotechnology under the “dual-use” security narrative has generated multiple security effects and developed both defensive and competitive objectives in the field of biotechnology policies. Theoretically, there is an obvious contradiction between the defensive and competitive objectives, which highlights the fact that Washington’s hegemonic logic has eroded its rational policy making against the backdrop of great power competition. Practically, US biotechnology policies have gone beyond its biodefense strategy with an attempt to “decouple” scientific research from that of America’s competitors and strengthen militarized investment so as to suppress America’s competitors and maintain its leading position in biotechnology. As is known to all, the development of emerging biotechnology contributes to globalization and benefits all humanity. The policies and actions based on US hegemonic logic is against the law of science and technology development, and may “backfire” and exert severe and negative impacts on the development of US biotechnology itself as well as global biosecurity.
查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭