文章摘要
孙德刚,章捷莹.复合身份政治:西亚大国参与阿富汗安全事务的三重维度[J].国际安全研究,2022,(2):104-131
复合身份政治:西亚大国参与阿富汗安全事务的三重维度
Complex Identity Politics: Three Dimensions of West Asian Powers’ Participation in the Afghan Security Affairs
  修订日期:2021-12-22
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2022.02.004
中文关键词: 阿富汗局势  安全事务  复合身份政治  伊斯兰大国  安全治理
英文关键词: Afghanistan, security affairs, complex identity politics, Islamic powers, security governance
基金项目:
作者单位
孙德刚 复旦大学中东研究中心 上海 200433 
章捷莹 复旦大学中东研究中心 上海 200433 
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中文摘要:
      “阿拉伯之春”爆发以来,西亚伊斯兰大国土耳其、伊朗和沙特阿拉伯(简称“沙特”)形成了复合身份。教派争端导致三国在西亚地区的战略博弈阵营化;阿富汗弱政府、强社会的权力结构使三国的战略博弈代理人化。作者提出“复合身份政治”概念,认为土耳其、伊朗和沙特以三重身份参与阿富汗安全事务。从族群和教派身份看,土耳其与阿富汗北部乌兹别克人和土库曼人等突厥语族群形成特殊关系;伊朗与中部哈扎拉人和塔吉克人形成特殊关系;沙特与南部普什图人形成特殊关系。从区域身份看,土耳其借助突厥语国家委员会,伊朗借助经济合作组织,沙特借助伊斯兰反恐联盟,三国在“向东看”过程中分别将阿富汗纳入各自主导的多边机制,形成了制度均势。从全球身份看,土耳其以北约的名义参与在阿富汗的军事行动,伊朗加入上海合作组织,沙特利用伊斯兰合作组织,三国与世界大国形成了议题联系。复合身份政治使土耳其、伊朗和沙特构筑相互交错的次体系,稀释了世界大国主导的阿富汗问题安全倡议,阿富汗安全格局由“多极”走向“多中心”。
英文摘要:
      Since the outbreak of the “Arab Spring”, sectarian disputes have led to the realignment of Islamic powers in Western Asia represented by Turkey, Iran and Saudi Arabia. Meanwhile, in Afghanistan, the power structure featuring a weak central government and strong local sects has resulted in the fragmentation of this country. This paper puts forward the concept of “complex identity politics” and holds that Turkey, Iran and Saudi Arabia get involved in Afghan security affairs with triple identities. In terms of ethnic and sectarian identities, Turkey has formed a special relationship with such Turkic ethnic groups as Uzbeks and Turkmen in northern Afghanistan; Iran has established special relations with such Persian-speaking ethnic groups as Hazara and Tajik people in central and northeast Afghanistan respectively; Saudi Arabia has developed a special relationship with the Pashtuns in southern Afghanistan. Viewed from regional identity, Turkey, Iran and Saudi Arabia have incorporated Afghanistan into their own multilateral mechanism in the process of “looking east” and thus formed an institutional balance with the aid of the Organization of Turkic States, the Economic Cooperation Organization and the Islamic Military Alliance to Fight Terrorism respectively. From the perspective of global identity, Turkey took part in NATO’s military operations in Afghanistan, Iran joined the Shanghai Cooperation Organization as an observer member in 2005, and Saudi Arabia has been an active member of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, thus forming their respective linkages with world powers. Complex identity politics has enabled the three countries to build an intertwined subsystem that could decrease the significance of the security initiatives involving Afghanistan made by world powers, and change the security pattern of Afghanistan with a shift from “multi-polarity” to “multi-center”
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