文章摘要
陈长宁.尊让与监督:美国防疫诉讼与公共卫生安全治理[J].国际安全研究,2022,(3):109-129
尊让与监督:美国防疫诉讼与公共卫生安全治理
Deference and Oversight: The Lawsuits Related to Pandemic Prevention and US Public Health Security Governance
投稿时间:2021-11-30  修订日期:2022-03-15
DOI:10.14093/j.cnki.cn10-1132/d.2022.03.005
中文关键词: 公共卫生安全  国家安全法治  司法尊让  新冠肺炎疫情  安全治理
英文关键词: public health security, rule of law in national security, judicial review, judicial deference, Covid-19 Pandemic
基金项目:
作者单位
陈长宁 四川大学国际关系学院 成都 610029 
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中文摘要:
      法治是公共卫生安全治理中的重要组成部分。美国公共卫生安全治理中始终存在一系列权力与权利的矛盾关系。其中主要矛盾是州政府行使治安权保护公共卫生安全与个人权利之间的冲突。要有效落实防疫政策等公共卫生安全治理举措,必须在公共卫生安全利益与个人权利间实现平衡。司法权能够裁决争议、抑止损害,持续对公共卫生安全治理产生重要影响。历史上,美国法院在公共卫生案件中采取司法尊让立场,推动了公共卫生安全治理的发展。当前,法院对政府其他分支机构行使权力的司法监督增强。新冠肺炎疫情下,美国公共卫生安全法治缺乏必要的稳定性,法院难以通过司法方式有效平衡公共卫生安全利益与个人权利。这不仅削弱了美国司法体系对公共卫生安全治理的影响力,也加深了美国公共卫生安全治理的困境。
英文摘要:
      The rule of law is part and parcel of public health security governance. There exist a series of contradictions and conflicts between power and rights in the US public health security governance. The principal contradiction lies in the collision between individual rights and the exercise of the state government’s police power to safeguard public health security. To effectively implement measures of public health security governance, such as pandemic prevention policies, it is necessary to strike a balance between the interests of public health and individual rights. The judicial power will continue to play a critical role in public health security governance in that it can adjudicate disputes and mitigate possible harm and damage. Historically, the US courts have been adopting a position of judicial deference in public health-related cases and thus facilitated the development of public health security governance. Currently, the US courts have strengthened judicial oversight of the exercise of power by other governmental branches. Against the backdrop of the Covid-19 pandemic, stability should be enhanced in the rule of law in public health security governance, otherwise the US courts will have great difficulty in effectively balancing public health security interests and individual rights through judicial means, which will not only weaken the influence of the US judicial system over public health security governance, but also deepen the dilemma of US public health security governance.
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